21289026: Alexander Kane Beezer Film Movement Assignment 2 13 April 2018
In French New Wave, the style of authorship is evident and is portrayed when the director is the creative influence behind the film. Dogme 95 rejects this theory of authorship and suggests that film is a collaborative effort, not solely influenced by the director, which creates a paradox by a director’s distinct style, with each film. Authorship is a polemical proclamation of authorship, brought into being, to create a discourse surrounding the production and reception of the films (Bordwell, Thompson, 2010).
French mainstream cinema became distant with post-war French youth, with the films not reflecting that era. These popular films where negatively described: Dry, recycled, inexpressive of human life; one critic stating, ‘Nostalgia for a cinema that no longer exists’ (Narboni, 1972). While French New Wave initially started as a formal movement, its filmmakers were connected by their unanimous repudiation of the "cinéma de qualité" (cinema of quality), which prompted a new generation of French directors to bring back the art of cinema and introduce the auteur theory (Brody, 2008)
Dogme 95 represented something of a paradox. While the figure of the individual filmmaker is explicitly denied in the movement’s Manifesto, its films are continuously understood in relation to the figures of its founders, with minimalist, hand-held aesthetic and guerilla-style production, similar to French New Wave who introduces the consumer-level digital technology and the DIY movement (MacKenzie, S, 2014). Throughout film history, movements consisted of a clear source, the manifesto and a clear agenda. This essay will consider the authorship of two movements, French New Wave and Dogme 95.
The term authorship, translated from the French, auteur, meaning author, has various meanings, the generic definition being the profession of writing, the source of a piece of writing, music, art or film; or the act of creating (Marriam-Webster dictionary online, 2017). However, the concept of authorship, auteursim or auteur, the terms used interchangeably in this essay, since the 1950s, provoked debate amongst French film critiques, since the Cahiers du Cinema (Caughie, 1891) due to what was perceived to be a combination industrial (production companies) and collaborative of film production (directors). For instance, Alfred Hitchcock’s films are recognizable not only for their story and stylistic elements but also for his standardized production method (Carringer, 2001). The context of the argument was who could be considered to be the author and what evidence is there to support such a claim? Though some questioned the necessity of authorship, it was viewed essential for reasons of intellectual property rights, status and identification and more so for the commercial filmmaking when authorship is not clearly defined. Commercial filming is a collaborative production made up of...