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Function Of The Myth Essay

1364 words - 6 pages

I miti ovidiani in Dante e le ragioni della loro attualità
Amare un'opera classica vuol dire amare la clessidra del tempo. Ovvero il passato e persino l'eternità. Un classico accresce, arricchisce lo spirito umano e parla a tutti in uno stile universale. Come sosteneva Italo Calvino, "un classico non smette mai di dire ciò che ha da dire". Ovidio è l'ultimo brillante poeta dell'età augustea a muoversi nel solco della tradizione. Già incalzano gli eventi
convulsi di una res publica che, per gradi, si trasforma in principato. A partire dall'esperienza privata, dalla soggettività dell'uomo, il pensiero dell'intellettuale si staglia su una ...view middle of the document...

Caravaggio ne dipinse soltanto il volto fanciullesco che contempla, compiaciuto, la sua immagine riflessa. Proprio la

tracotanza gli fu letale: Nemesi non tarderà ad impartire insindacabile vendetta, esaudendo chi, umiliato, la invoca. Eco non era riuscita a trovare quiete, nè la sua triste risonanza lascerà che Narciso sopravviva alla sua superbia. Edi Brancolini ritrae l'indifferenza del giovinetto intento ad ammirare le sue fattezze e la replicazione del corpo di Eco, che, quasi in dissolvimento, propaga la sua ombra, fino a rarefarsi, diventando puro spirito. Eco e Narciso, mai avvicinati da scambievole amore in vita, saranno fatalmente accomunati dalla stessa morte, fortemente voluta da entrambi, per consunzione. È ammirevole la fermezza della ninfa, nel proposito di pagare il prezzo della propria sconfitta. L'irriducibile attualità della mitologia sta nell'extratemporalità e nel legame indissolubile a temi connaturati all'uomo di ogni tempo e di ogni dove. La garanzia della durata dei versi ci è confermata da Orazio: exegi monumentum aëre perennius. Lo stesso accade nella Divina Commedia, dove Dante saprà mescere sapientemente il terreno al soprannaturale partendo dalla leggenda o dal mito, per emulare il suo modello. Dante ed Ovidio scelsero, in tempi e modalità differenti, di trascrivere, con compiuta coscienza, il fluire continuo della vita, nelle sue manifestazioni, evidenti o nascoste che siano. L'ispiratore è chiamato in causa nel XXV Canto dell'Inferno: "Taccia di Cadmo e di Aretusa Ovidio, che se quello in serpente e quella in fonte converte poetando, io non lo 'nvidio". Dante prende le mosse dall'imitatio-aemulatio medievale per una riscrittura degli auctores da cui attinge. Servendosi di una raffinata "arte allusiva", così definita da Giorgio Pasquali in un saggio del 1942, Dante ricorre a reminescenze inconsapevoli, le imitazioni, o volontarie, le allusioni. "Poeta dell'intelligenza", il fiorentino non esita a proclamare la propria vittoria poetica sul sulmonese, consapevole di aver penetrato, nella prigionia del sogno, l'arcano scenario oltremondano, nel baratro dell'oscurità o nella profondità eterea della luce. L'exemplum classico, raggiunto e sublimato, è reinterpretato in forma superiore, carica di quel senso che la verità cristiana impreziosisce e cela. Alighieri si professa "sesto tra cotanto senno": ai suoi maestri è stato concesso di preconizzare il provvidenzialismo divino, ma in chiave ancora pagana. A lui invece è dato sapere il mistero del destino dell'uomo

dopo questa vita. Ovidio, quasi impercettibilmente, sfiora la verità custodita dal cuore umano, Dante è ufficialmente investito di una missione mistica di cui nessuno prima. Ovidio si erge, oscillante, senza sostegno; la poesia di Dante, invece, è pervasa e mirabilmente suggellata dalla fede salvifica. Una metamorfosi...

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