Geography Physical Notes Leaving Cert Leaving Cert Research

3027 words - 13 pages

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit
State Examinations Commission
Leaving Certificate 2012
Marking Scheme
Higher Level
Design and Communication Graphics
Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit
State Examinations Commission
Leaving Certificate 2012
Marking Scheme
Biology
Higher Level
Introduction
The marking scheme is a guide to awarding marks to candidates‟ answers. It is a concise and
summarised guide and is constructed in a way to minimise its word content.
Examiners must conform to this scheme and may not allow marks for answering outside this scheme.
The scheme contains key words or phrases for which candidates may be awarded marks. This does
not preclude synonyms or phrases which convey the same meaning as the answer in the marking
scheme.
Although synonyms are generally acceptable, there may be instances where the scheme demands an
exact scientific term and will not accept equivalent non-scientific or colloquial terms.
The descriptions, methods and definitions in the scheme are not exhaustive and alternative valid
answers are acceptable. If it comes to the attention of the Examiner that a candidate has presented a
valid answer and there is no provision in the scheme for accepting this answer, then he/ she must first
consult with his/ her Advising Examiner before awarding marks. In general, if in doubt about any
answer, examiners should consult their Advising Examiner before awarding marks.
A key word may be awarded marks, only if it is presented in the correct context.
e.g. Question: Briefly outline how water from the soil reaches the leaf.
Marking scheme - concentration gradient/ root hair/ osmosis/ cell to cell/ root pressure/ xylem/
cohesion (or explained)/ adhesion (or capillarity or explained)/ Dixon and Joly/ transpiration or
evaporation/ tension any six 6(3)
Answer “ Water is drawn up the xylem by osmosis” Although the candidate has presented two key
terms (xylem, osmosis), the statement is incorrect and the candidate can only be awarded 3 marks for
referring to the movement of water through the xylem.
Cancelled Answers
The following is an extract from S63 Instructions to Examiners 2010 (section 7.3, p.22)
“Where a candidate answers a question or part of a question once only and then cancels the answer,
you should ignore the cancelling and should treat the answer as if the candidate had not cancelled it.”
e.g. Question: What is pollination?
Marking Scheme: transfer of pollen/ from anther/ to stigma 3(3) marks
Sample Answer: transfer of pollen/ by insect/ to stigma
The candidate has cancelled the answer and has not made another attempt to answer the question and
may be awarded 2(3) marks.
Surplus Answers
In Section A, a surplus wrong answer cancels the marks awarded for a correct answer.
e.g. Question: The walls of xylem vessels are reinforced with ……………………
Marking Scheme: lignin 4 marks
Sample answers:
chitin, lignin – there is a surplus answer, which is incorrect, therefore the candidate scores 4 – 4 marks
= 0.
lignin – the answer,...

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