Hemodynamics And The Urinary System English Homework Assignments

2207 words - 9 pages

Hemodynamics and the Urinary System
● Blood pressure (mean arterial pressure)
- Hydrostatic pressure of blood against vessel wall
- mmHg
Blood Pressure:
● Systolic blood pressure (SBP)
- Pressure in arteries when ventricles contract
● Diastolic blood pressure (DBP)
- Pressure in arteries when ventricles relax
● Blood pressure = systolic bp/ diastolic bp
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)
● Include % of time spent in each phase of the cycle
● Why is the control of mean arterial pressure important?
1) To maintain and control blood flow (perfusion) to organs, tissues, etc.
2) To influence bulk movement (filtration) across capillary walls
● Blood flow (perfusion) = Amount blood/time moving past a given point or into or out
of an organ
● To change flow, must change pressure or resistance
Blood Pressure in Various Parts of the Cardiovascular System
● Roughly the same in aorta and arteries
● SBP and DBP disappear as you move towards capillaries
● Low pressure in capillaries
● Very low pressure in venules and veins
Blood Flow Between Two Points
● If R were very large, flow would be very small, moving toward 0
What Determines P and R at a Single Point?
● Forces opposing liquid movement
● Resistance is influenced by several factors:
Resistance is Directly Proportional to:
● Viscosity of liquid (U)
- Composition
- Temperature
● Length of tube (L)
- Obesity
● Blood Volume (not in formula; assumed to be constant)
- But not if your bleeding
● Radius of tube (r)
- Small changes in radius change resistance dramatically
- Immediate with autonomic nervous system
● Changing resistance changes:
- Pressure
- Flow
Arterial Blood Flow and Pressure
● Arterial blood flow:
- Amt/min coming out of LV
- Also called ​cardiac output​ (CO)
● In respiratory system:
- Amt/time = amt/breath X breaths/min
● In cardiovascular system:
- Amt/time = amt/beat X beats/min
● CO = amt/time
● Heart rate (HR) = beats/min
● Stroke volume (SV) = amt/be
Venous Blood Flow
● Venous flow mostly due to skeletal muscle contraction
Factors that Increase CO
Increase SV (Stroke Volume):
● Increase preload (stretch) increases force of contraction
- Frank-Starling law of the heart
● Increase strength of contraction:
● Increase of sympathetic nervous stimulation
● Hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine
● Increase calcium inflow
● Decrease afterload:
- Decrease amount of blood in ventricles at end of systole
● Hypertension and atherosclerosis increase afterload
Increase HR (Heart Rate):
● CV center in medulla oblongata
- Increase sympathetic nervous stimulation
- Decrease parasympathetic nervous stimulation
● Hormones: epinephrine and norepinephrine
● Increase calcium
● Age and gender
● Increase in temperature
Factors that Influence Blood Pressure
● Increased venous return
● Increased resistance
● Radius
- Increase sympathetic
- Epinephrine and angiotensin
Factors that Influence Venous Return
● Skeletal muscle pump (valves)
● Respiratory pump
● Gravity
● Increased blood volume...

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