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History And Methods Ap Psychology Essay Essay

1452 words - 6 pages

Unit 1 Modules 1-3
History
• Wilhelm Wundt- founded first research lab in 1879- birth of scientific psychology
• Structuralism – studied consciousness- introspection, examining one’s mind and what
one is thinking and feeling. Edward Titchener
• Functionalism- look at function not structure, stress adaptation to the environment.
• William James (Principles of Psychology in 1890) John Dewey
• Gestalt psychology – focus on the totality of perception, Max Wertheimer
• Psychoanalysis- Sigmund Freud- focus on role of unconscious conflicts, the process
of raising these conflicts to a level of awareness is the goal of psychoanalysis
Current Views of Psychology-
• Neurobiology- Behavior viewed in terms of biological responses
• Behaviorism- Behavior viewed as a product of learned responses.
• Humanism- Behavior viewed as a reflection of internal growth. Free will, self-
actualization, Carl Rogers, client-centered therapy
• Psychodynamic – Behavior viewed as a reflection of unconscious aggressive and
sexual impulses
• Cognitive Behavior viewed as a product of various internal sentences or thoughts.
• Sociocultural – Behavior viewed as strongly influenced by the rules and expectations
of specific social groups or cultures.
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
Psychology- the scientific study of the behavior of living things
4 goals- describe, understand, predict and control
theory – general framework for scientific study; smaller aspects can be tested
Charles Darwin – theories led to comparative psychology, inspired early functionalists
Wilhelm Wundt- ‘father of psychology’, first scientific lab
Introspection- the process of looking into yourself and describing what is there 

Structuralism- the first theoretical school in psychology, stated that all complex
substances could be separated and analyzed into component elements
Sigmund Freud- psychodynamic approach, emphasis on the unconscious
William James- wrote ‘Principles of Psychology’, a functionalist, coined the phrase
‘stream of consciousness’
Functionalist – asked what the mind does and why, believed that all behavior and mental
processes help organisms to adapt to a changing environment
John. B. Watson- behaviorist, Little Albert
Gestalt psychology –emphasized the organizational processes in behavior, rather than
the content of behavior, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
Eclecticism – the process of making your own system by borrowing from two or more
other systems.
Neurobiological approach (medical)- viewing behavior as the result of nervous system
functions and biology
Behavioral approach –view behavior as the product of learning and associations
B. F. Skinner- behaviorist, operant conditioning
Humanistic approach- believe that people are basically good and capable of helping
themselves.
Carl Rogers- a humanist
Psychoanalysis- a system of viewing the individual as the product of unconscious forces
Cognitive approach- emphasizing how humans use mental processes to handle problems
or develop certain...

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