How Does Lithium Help Stabilise Mood? St Albans High School For Girls Essay

1722 words - 7 pages

Helen Wright
How does lithium help stabilise mood? An introduction to bipolar disorder and circadian rhythms
Lithium, a hugely reactive metal, has entered in to the medical scene in the past 50 years for something rather unexpected. Its one outer shell electron allows it to react violently with substances as common as water due to it being easily oxidised, however through extensive research and clinical trials, it has been found to interact with chemicals in the brain. Perhaps most interesting, it affects a person’s circadian rhythm, leading to its importance medically. Although not fully understood by scientists to this day, it has been used to treat manic episodes in people suffering with bipolar disorder as a mood stabiliser and alternative to valproic acid, and can be taken in conjunction with anti-depressants and other treatments such as psychotherapy. The chemistry behind its reactions in the brain is fascinating, and its efficacy makes it a life-saving drug for many suffering with this mental illness.
Firstly, bipolar disorder, otherwise known as manic depression, is an illness causing unusual mood changes which are more extreme than those occurring in someone without it. The happy or energetic periods are known as manic episodes, and the low energy, down periods as depressive episodes. Bipolar disorder can also affect the ability of a person to think clearly and causes changes in sleep patterns, which of course are otherwise known as circadian rhythms. A human’s circadian rhythm is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) or ‘master clock’, a group of about 20,000 nerve cells in the hypothalamus region of the brain. The SCN is connected to the optic nerve at the back of the eye, therefore when light hits the retina in the morning, electrical signals are sent to this portion of the brain and converted into other signals which have a physical effect on the body. For example they induce increases in body temperature, heart rate and blood pressure, along with delaying the release of hormones such as melatonin, responsible for regulating sleep. The chemical mechanism behind this process is far more complex as it involves a Transcription Translation Oscillating Loop. The process of transcription occurs throughout the body, creating a copy of the DNA sequence to form an RNA molecule with the opposite nucleotide bases to form essentially a mirror image. As Adenine and Guanine pair together and Thymine and Cytosine together, if there is an A base on the DNA, a G one will be present on the RNA molecule and this pattern is consistent with the other bases with the exception of RNA containing Uracil bases instead of Thymine. This process occurs as RNA, unlike DNA, can exit the nucleus into the cytoplasm, where the sequence is read and translated into a form of ‘recipe’ for proteins. With regards to a person’s circadian rhythm, core clock genes are involved, and these code for proteins that bind to particular genes on the DNA in order to eit...


Social Developments in the USSR, 1918-85 - St Albans / Lower 6th - Essay

1134 words - 5 pages CWK Social Developments Essay 23rd April 2018 How far do you agree that the standard of living of all Soviet Citizens improved in the years 1953 to 1985? The Soviet people have been through a great period of change in the last century, more so arguably than many other nations in the world. The communist government led different rates of change throughout the different leaderships that included Lenin, Stalin, and in this period Khrushchev

Why can lying be important and how does it connect to the Crucible. - Valley Forge High School English - Essay

798 words - 4 pages Free I do believe as a young teenager lying can be important for individuals and some situations, for example I’m pretty sure most teenagers have lied to there parents at one point. Everything relies upon what your lying for. it could be an advantage or a disadvantage. In the Crucible Abigail in the book does lies commonly in the book. She deceives her uncle about what occurred in the woods. She lies commonly to attempt and ensure herself and

shsm worksheet that will help outline and help you - high school major - high school major

890 words - 4 pages Loretto Abbey's SHSM Program – NON-PROFIT Sector Student Registration Form for the 2018-2019 Academic Year Thank you for your interest in enroling in Loretto Abbey’s Non-Profit Specialist High Skills Major (SHSM) Program. You will gain valuable knowledge and participate in enriching experiences in grades 11 and 12! A Summary of the SHSM Program PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS: • A specific BUNDLE* of 9 CREDITS some of which include Contextualized Learning

A essay about math and will help students and teacher study. - Willingboro High School - Math

2436 words - 10 pages this scene is one where the sons are overly dramatic and terribly sad; it would have been difficult to be “blind with fury” or overcome by tears if they had known about the scheme all along. Paragraph 10 How does Ahamed support his claim, “A Ponzi scheme is the opposite of a perfect crime”? Ahamed says that after a while no Ponzi scheme can continue and the numbers become “unsustainable.” This was the case for Bernie Madoff. Why will the numbers

Is Lying important and how does it connect with the story Crucible - Valley Forge High School English Class 11th grade - Essay

796 words - 4 pages I do believe as a young teenager lying can be important for individuals and some situations, for example I’m pretty sure most teenagers have lied to there parents at one point. Everything relies upon what your lying for. it could be an advantage or a disadvantage. In the Crucible Abigail in the book does lies commonly in the book. She deceives her uncle about what occurred in the woods. She lies commonly to attempt and ensure herself and

An essay about The Book Shattered - St Patrick’s high school/ grade 10 - Essay

649 words - 3 pages and he taught him to respect and not judge anyone. Third of all, Ian meets Sarge. The UN peacekeeper that tried his best to help people. He is now a homeless person, because of PTSD. Sarge becomes his friend and teaches him about wars, genocides, deaths, and equality which made him change his thoughts about all of these people and giving them some more respect. Sarge teaches Ian about how traumatizing it was for him to go through everything he did

How Were The Lodz Ghettos Grim for Jews Living There? - El Cerrito High School - World War II - Essay

1748 words - 7 pages   Germans. They even helped round up Jews who were to be deported. Oh, how despised they were.  Jews who were deported faced an unknown misery. Many would rather stay and live the grim misery  they knew than the one they didn’t.   Life in the Lodz ghetto was unimaginable for Jews. There was corruption within the system  where the “favored” were treated generously, which led to the starvation of others. The lack of  health and sanitary services led to

How does Dickens create sympathy for Scrooge in A Christmas Carol - Year 11 - Essay

1315 words - 6 pages 190703 How does Dickens create Sympathy for Scrooge in ‘A Christmas Carol’? In the novella ‘A Christmas Carol’, Dickens creates sympathy for Scrooge by showing the reader who he used to be, who he could have been, and how people really feel about him. He does this by structuring the novella to show Scrooge’s past, present and future, so Scrooge’s character can learn to be a better man by reflecting on his mistakes in life. In the extract

Did Industrialization Help America? - Greenbrook middle school - Essay

1159 words - 5 pages Did Industrialization help America? New inventions, like the steam engine and cotton gin, revolutionized the way that markets produced machinery to make labor more efficient and powerful, launching the Industrial Revolution. However, the Industrial Revolution did not help America grow as a country because the Industrial Revolution discouraged women from work, abused slaves for profit, and gave white men superiority. In the Industrial Revolution

End Gun violence for any school and everywhere - Blackville hilda high school - Essay

1142 words - 5 pages Quincy Stroman 1/8/18 English 4 Essay Outline A. Introduction B. Telling about how kids growing up C. Seeing violence all your life D. How to help kids and to motivate E. Conclusion. Life of and young african american and gun violence You can find gun violence anywhere around america. I believe once your 18 you should be legal to carry a weapon. Some young kids are shown guns before they are 18. If you are old enough to go to county jail at 18

Analysis of Romeo and Juliet. Identifies conflicts, tone, mood, atmosphere and character details. - Secondary School/ English - Essay

1189 words - 5 pages Romeo and Juliet Essay William Shakespeare, a renowned author, is known for his timeless literature that has been loved and analyzed for centuries; his piece on Romeo and Juliet is no exception. Romeo and Juliet is about two star-crossed lovers who cannot foresee a future without one another. However, due to their family’s never ending feud being seen together itself will cause an uprising in their town of Verona let alone getting married. The

Othello and Desdemona worship or desire one another, no middle ground - Torquay Girls' Grammar School - Essay

1598 words - 7 pages Free asking shows Desdemona’s worry and sense of panic conveying a frantic tone because she worships her husband and wants him to know the truth and how loyal she is. Feminist Lisa Jardine criticised Desdemona for becoming a “stereotype of female passivity” due to her almost bowing down to her husband who is aggressively speaking to her rather than arguing with him, whilst other people may argue that it shows Desdemona passionately caring for Othello

How does H.G Wells present humanity in the War of the Worlds - Oakham School, form 7 - Essay

990 words - 4 pages How does H.G Wells present humanity in the War of the Worlds Humanity can be defined as the features and qualities that make people humans or as the sympathy and kindness that is extended towards others. In the War of the Worlds, humanity is lost from the start, as the narrator explicitly references the extermination of the indigenous population of Tasmania by British colonies, and says that we humans, are not to judge them because we too had

An essay on why the pledge does or does not help students' education and the educational system. - Woodland Hills Academy / English - Essay

448 words - 2 pages Free republic [to] not stand the pressures of time“ (4). Nonetheless, the reality is that simply declaiming the “Pledge of Allegiance” continuously does not bring the earnest desires and wishes within this patriotic passage to life. John Green, a teacher at Castro Valley High School, states that he is not quite convinced that “… these aspirational values…truly connect all Americans to one another” (4). Furthermore, Green informs readers of the

Essay 4, research essay all for high school - English 4 - Essay

947 words - 4 pages capable of. During the funeral, Antony pulls out Caesar's will. He begins by telling the people by saying Caesar has left all his wealth to them, making the mob sad and confused. Looking at the body, Antony points out the wounds that Brutus and Cassius inflicted, reminding the crowd how Caesar loved Brutus, and yet Brutus stabbed him viciously. He tells how Caesar died and blood ran down the steps of the Senate. Then he uncovers the body for all