How Far Do Social Factors Impact Voting Behaviour? Year 12 Essay

1156 words - 5 pages

Social factors do have an impact on voting behaviour, such as class and regionalism. However, there are social factors which do not have an impact, such as age, gender and background. However some of these factors can be closely linked to class which clearly does have an impact on voting behaviour so it is clear that social factors do have an impact. There are other factors which play into voting behaviour too, which are not social factors, such as valance, policies and party image.
Social factors do have an impact on voting behaviour, such as class and regionalism. Class can have a big impact on voting behaviour, as the upper and middle class tend to vote for the conservative party, whereas the working class tend to vote for the Labour Party. For example, in the 2017 general election just under 50% of Labour voters fell under the DE (unemployed) class specification, while just below 50% of the Conservative voters fell under the AB (middle/upper) class specification. This clearly has a huge impact on voting behaviour, as in most cases, there is a clear correlation between the class that one falls under and the party that they vote for. However, there have been cases where people have started to move away from voting for a party due to their class. In the 2010 General Election the Conservatives gained from all groups with the exception of the lowest class DE which stayed Labour. ABC1 (grouped together) had a 39% vote for the Conservatives while Labour had 27%. In the C2 class 37% voted Conservative compared to 29% for Labour, and in the DE group 31% voted Conservative and 40% Labour. This shows that although there is some correlation and that class can have an impact on voting behaviour, in recent years, that has become less apparent and people are starting to move away from this. However, this doesn’t apply in most cases and you still have classes voting for the two major parties based on their class. Another social factor which has an impact on voting behaviour, is regionalism. There is a consistent north/ south divide in voting behaviour in the UK. The north tends to favour Labour and the south favours the Conservative Party. In 2001, the southern part of England voted 56.3% for the Conservative Party whilst the north of England, Scotland and Wales voted 82.4% in favour of the Labour Party. This pattern may be linked to the industrial past of the UK when heavy industry and links to trade unions were concentrated in Central Scotland, the North of England and Wales. However, this could be argued that although people do vote based on where they live, it actually links to class. For example, the borough of Kensington and Chelsea is the richest with the average gross annual household income being £101,600, with many upper class families living in this borough. The region in which you live in is almost directly linked to class, so although class can have an impact on voting behaviour, it is more or less tied into class. Although people could argue that the region in which you live in is very closely linked to class, there are divides within regions, and therefore they alone do have an impact on voting behaviour.
Although there are social factors that do greatly impact voting behaviour, with these come social factors which do not. For example age and background, and gender. G.B Shaw once wrote “If you are not a socialist by the time you are 25 you have no heart. If you are not a conservative by the time you are 35 you have no head.” There is a clear link between age and the party that you vote for, although the reasons as to why are unclear. For example those under the age of 35 tend to vote for the Labour party, with 66% of 18-19 year olds voting Labour, with the Conservative vote increasing with age with 69% of 70+ voting for the Conservative party following the 2017 election. Traditionally, Labour was seen to be the more idealistic party, promoting and egalitarian state, which hugely appealed to the younger voters. There is also a link between ethnicity and voting behaviour. The Labour party has tended to benefit from the ethnic minority vote, especially the Afro-Caribbean vote. This may be because, in the past, Labour policies have seemed more sympathetic towards ethnic minorities. However, from 2009-2012 14% of black Africans were in persistent poverty, which could indicate that they fall into the working class or lower class, which showed that it did have an impact on voting behaviour. Gender can also have an impact on voting behaviour with younger women being 16.5% more supportive of Labour than young men, and young men were 14.5% more supportive of the Conservatives than young women. Conversely, older women were 12% more supportive of the Conservatives than older men, but older men were more than twice as likely to vote for UKIP than older women. This shows that gender is a social factor that doesn’t have an impact on voting behaviour.
However, there other factors, such as valance, economic policy, party image and issue voting which also has an impact on voting behaviour. During the campaign, running up to the 2015 general election, the Labour party were seen as unable to lead the country, with Ed Miliband constantly being spoken about, as he was unable to eat a bacon roll. As a result of this, the Labour party only managed to secure 30% of the seats. This is not a social factor, but does have some impact on voting behaviour, as poor press can have a negative impact on the image of a party, as well as the party leader, causing people to not vote for a particular party. Another factor which can influence voting behaviour is valance. Leading up to the 2017 election, many people saw Jeremy Corbyn as an unfit leader, and did not have faith in him to lead the country, if Labour had won. The newspapers constantly attacked him, much like they did with Miliband, and was constantly criticised and critiques for not wearing a poppy, or for looking scruffy. This has a huge impact on voting behaviour, as although he had done better than expected, he still did not win the election, but gained wide support from the youth, to whom he appealed to. The Labour party managed to gain 40% of the seats.
Although there are factors which do suggest that social factors do not have an impact on voting behaviour, most of them can be closely linked to class, and therefore do have an impact on the way that somebody votes. There are also other factors which are not social factors which also determine how one votes, but it is clear to make the judgement that social factors do have an impact on voting behaviour and how one votes.


Behaviour within time of crisis - St Marcus College Year 12 - Essay

1277 words - 6 pages Juliet Grant What do these texts suggest about human behaviour in a crisis? Geraldine Brooks’ novel ‘Year of Wonders’ and Arthur Millers’ ‘The Crucible’ explore a myriad of human responses made by individuals in small, isolated communities that suffer from devastating upheaval. The construction of Brooks’ dramatic novel and Millers’ allegorical play illustrate a series of parallels between the Bubonic plague and Salem Witch Trials which expose

Marriage equality: What we have done and how far do we still have to go - College - Essay

1216 words - 5 pages Carmen Electra, 9 days; Gregg Allman and Cher, 9 days; Rudolph Valentino and Jean Acker, 6 hours; Robert Evans and Catherine Oxenberg, 12 days; Jeremy Thomas and Drew Barrymore, 29 days; Ethel Merman and Ernest Borgnine, 38 days; Janet Jackson and James DeBarge, 4 months. These people have done more to destroy what many people believe marriage is supposed to be than any same sex couple could ever hope to do. I could argue that same sex couple will

How do firms make location decisions when internationalising - uni year 1 - essay

2286 words - 10 pages How do firms make location decisions when internationalising? What factors do they have to consider and what academic theories have been developed to explain this? This essay will determine how firms make locational decisions and identifying key factors that can affect their choices and academic theories to support the claims. We will first be understanding why firms want to internationalise, which will be vital for the essay because If we do

how do the characters of Claudio, Leanato and Don Pedro behave towards Hero - year 10 - essay

1765 words - 8 pages How are Leanato, Claudio and Don Pedro presented in their treatment of Hero? The characters of Leanato, Claudio and Don Pedro are key to the plot of Shakespeare’s play, ‘Much Ado About Nothing’ and in act 4, Scene 1 we see a significant change in how these characters are presented compared to earlier on in the play; a transition which is highlighted through their treatment of Hero. Although the reasoning behind their behaviour (rumours of Hero’s

The Bio-Psychological Approaches To Understanding Mental Events And Behaviour Result In More Conclusive Findings Than Using A Social Approach And/Or Examining Environmental Factors. Discuss

2275 words - 10 pages produced when norepinephrine and seretonin are broken down by enzymes are found in the urine of depressed people. This suggest lower activity than normal of norepinephrine and seretonin, secreting neurons in the brain.However, these approaches do not take into account the psychodynamic or social factors involved in depression. Freud argued that actual losses and symbolic losses lead us to re0experience parts of our childhood with depressed people

British cultural clash - Year 12 - Essay

2086 words - 9 pages The arrival of increasing numbers of British women was the most significant cause of the clash of cultures between the British and the Indians in the 18th and 19th century India. How far do you agree? The arrival of increasing numbers of British women contributed to pre-existing cultural tensions evident in the dissent that existed between the British and Indian perceptions of religious principles as well as cultural traditions. The clash


1209 words - 5 pages ’ private palace, his largest building project was inspired by Sejanus. It included the building of new barracks for the Praetorian Guard, which would then move the force within the city. Tiberius lacked contribution to building programs and thus did not have a lasting and beneficial impact on the political policies and the population of the state. Despite being known for his erratic behaviour, Caligula (Gaius) contributed significantly to the building

How is Fate and Chance presented in Thomas Hardy’s the Mayor of Casterbridge? - St.Albans year 12 - Essay

1968 words - 8 pages How is Fate and Chance presented in Thomas Hardy’s the Mayor of Casterbridge? The people of the 1800s believed in many superstitions however, the 19th Century is generally remembered as a time of science and technology, when the ideas of Charles Darwin and Samuel Morse changed the world forever. Perhaps the otherworldly was a way to hold on to a superstitious past. According to Thomas Hardy “an evil power rules the human’s destinies which thwart

v for vendetta essay year 12 in class - year 12 - essay

970 words - 4 pages character is partly developed by the way Evey responds to him, Evey interacts with V in such a way that gives the viewers great confidence in that the plans he has install for London are the correct way to bring about change. Evey is revealed as a pure protagonist, this allows viewers to instil great trust in her measured behaviour. When Evey puts her confidence in V it encourages the audience to do the same. This is expressed when Evey is instructed

Circumstances Do Not Define Happiness - English 12 - Essay

710 words - 3 pages Circumstance Don’t Define Happiness An individual’s attitude during their hardships can have a significant impact on the decisions that they make and their overall happiness. In the passages, “Circus in Town” by Sinclair Ross and “ ‘Happyness’ for Sale” by Jia Lynn Yang, both main characters encounter trials and challenges that come with an impoverished lifestyle. Both stories focus on how important having a positive and optimistic outlook on

How Far Does Alexander II Deserve the Title of Tsar Liberator - History - Essay

2351 words - 10 pages Maddie Bryan How Far Does Alexander II Deserve The Title Of ‘Tsar Liberator’? Alexander II was Tsar of Russia from 1855 after succeeding his father, Nicholas I, and sought to fix many problems Russia was troubled with during the time. The country has no zemsta, people were relatively uneducated, the judicial system was extremely biased and therefore unfair, censorship was deceitful and strict and the serfs were still imprisoned by their lords

how far was the legue a complete failure? - Hartlepool Sixth Form College History - Essay

1480 words - 6 pages Free Courtney Fishwick Media Histories How far was the League a complete failure? There were both successes and failures of the league. The Corfu incident of 1923 was a huge failure and demonstrated the weakness of the league. There was an incident at the Greek Albanian border where an Italian General, Tellini and his team were ambushed and killed. The league made a decision that compensation would be paid to the league and when the people

Social Biography - Sociology - Primary and Secondary Factors - Uni, Sociology - Essay assignment

1420 words - 6 pages 1 SOCS 100: Introduction to Sociology Assignment 1: Critical Analysis (Social Biography) Rupa Pun (S00263292) Tutor: Ms. Nicole Stirling Word Count: 1046 Date: 22 March 2019 Social Biography This social biography is about John, the youngest son in a family of seven. The report will provide a glimpse of how he has learned to adapt and function in society through socialisation in which John’s beliefs, attitudes, values and behaviour is influenced

The Merchant of Venice Essay - Year 12 HSC - Essay

941 words - 4 pages Texts about human experiences illuminate how collective experiences shape an individual's human qualities and behaviour. To what extent does the text you have studied demonstrate the individual and human experiences and interconnect? The Merchant of Venice written by William Shakespeare in 1605 is a comedic play that challenges how collective experiences shape an individual's human qualities and behaviour. It gives insight into the anomalies

How do we Amend the Constitution - Essay

1514 words - 7 pages succession to the presidency and vice presidency During the era of the Cold War and in the wake of JFK's assassination, a clearer chain of ascension to the nations' highest offices was needed. 26 Voting Age (1971) · The age of eligibility for voting is lowered to 18  In the wake of protests over the Vietnam war, a fundamental hypocrisy in the American voting system became clear. 18 year-olds could be drafted and forced to fight in war, but could not cast