Human Factors In Aviation: Circadian Rhythmicity

2245 words - 9 pages

Circadian RhythmLiving organisms on this planet have adapted to the daily rotation of the earth on its axis. By means of "endogenous circadian clocks" that can be synchronized to the daily and seasonal changes in external time cues, most notably light and temperature. Most people anticipate environmental transitions, perform activities at biologically advantageous times during the day, and undergo characteristic seasonal responses. The effects of transmeridian flight and shift work are stark reminders that although modern technologies can create "cities that never sleep" we cannot escape the recalcitrance of endogenous clocks that regulate much of our physiology and behavior. Recent progress ...view middle of the document...

Fighting this physiological switch that turns on the body's rest and sleep apparatus can be extremely difficult and uncomfortable when one is forced to stay awake by the requirements of the job (Monk, 1990).1+2Social Factors as one of the types of zeitgebersThe specific environmental time cues which synchronize it to a 24-hour day are known by the German term "zeitgebers," meaning "time-givers." Currently, two types of zeitgebers have been identified: exposure to bright light and social factors. There is some evidence that the human circadian clock may be synchronized by certain social factors, including the work/rest schedule. However, the specific aspects of the social environment that constitute time cues have not yet been identified, and the mechanisms by which they affect the clock remain unknown. (NASA 1999)Maximal Sleepiness PeriodsWe are physiologically programmed for two periods of maximal sleepiness in a usual 24-hour period. The period 3-5 A.M. is a circadian low point for temperature, performance, and alertness. During this time, the brain triggers sleep and sleepiness.The other period of increased sleepiness is roughly 3-5 P.M. Most individuals have experienced an afternoon wave of sleepiness. These windows can be used to schedule sleep periods or naps because the brain provides a period of maximal sleepiness and an increased opportunity for sleep. Performance and alertness can be decreased during the nocturnal window, which is from 2 A.M. until 6 A.M. For some, the afternoon window of sleepiness may occur between 2 P.M. and 4 P.M. Mental activity invlolved in flight at these times should help maintain alertness.(NASA 1999)Falling asleep earlier is harder than sleeping laterThe problem with having to get up earlier than usual is that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to fall asleep sufficiently early the night before to compensate (even when the duty schedule permits). It is not simply a question of discipline or motivation. The circadian clock effectively opposes falling asleep earlier than the habitual bedtime. Just as there are preferred times in the circadian cycle for falling asleep, there are also times when sleep onset is very unlikely. These times have been labeled "wake maintenance zones," and one of them occurs just before the habitual bedtime. In addition, because the "biological day" dictated by the circadian clock tends to be longer than 24 hours, it is easier to go to sleep later than to go to sleep earlier. Going to sleep later also means staying awake longer, which allows more time for the homeostatic "sleep pressure" to build up.(NASA 1999)Long Haul Operations and the biological clockField studies specific to different aviation environments and using a range of measures (e.g., performance, physiology, and behavior) have revealed a number of factors related to fatigue. For example, in long-haul operations, the non-24-hr duty/rest cycles, the circadian desynchronization associated with transmeridien flights,...

Other Essays On Human Factors In Aviation: Circadian Rhythmicity

Free Flight: Next Generation of Air Traffic Control - Everglades University - Aviation - Research Paper

1285 words - 6 pages heavily on technology. Unlike modern air traffic control that relies heavily on human communication, the flight crew would be responsible for detecting and avoiding issues during the flight. Communication would be sent directly from computers to the aircraft, which in turn can eliminate human error by controllers, and allow pilots to adjust as they deem necessary (Free Flight Concept, 2007). Free Flight would still utilize the Terminal Control

Sociology Assignment on Gender and Work - Uni Foundation Year - Case Study

2287 words - 10 pages Davidson, M.J., 2000. The right of passage? The experiences of female pilots in commercial aviation. Feminism & Psychology, 10(2), pp.195-225. Douglas, D.G., 2015. American women and flight since 1940. University Press of Kentucky. Germain, M.L., Herzog, M.J.R. and Hamilton, P.R., 2012. Women employed in male-dominated industries: lessons learned from female aircraft pilots, pilots-in-training and mixed-gender flight instructors. Human Resource

Assignment - Airport Noise - The importance of managing the airports nosies - University of Huddersfield final year - Assignment

3519 words - 15 pages 0 AIRLINE AND AIRPORT ECONOMICS AND MARKETING AIRPORT NOISE NUISANCE E.MARIGNAN U1667185 WORDS:2536 18 FABRUARY 2019 1 I - Executive Summary The research will deal with aviation noise but more specifically about airport noises, which is one of the main factors for communities’ complaints around airports. Indeed, a constant exposure to aircraft noises is negatively affecting health and quality of life of those living around airports. In fact, the

An assessment of project management processes: London Heathrow Terminal 5 - RMIT - assignment

1521 words - 7 pages An assessment of project management processes: London Heathrow Terminal 5 1. Introduction 1.1 Concept of project management According to a guide to the project management body of knowledge (2017), project management is “the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements”. In terms of aviation area, where projects are often described as megaprojects, the main purpose of project

An external environment assessment of an aviation business - RMIT - Assignment

2319 words - 10 pages conditions; internal strengths and weaknesses and external opportunities and threats. A SWOT analysis conducted for SIA can be seen in the table below. INTERNAL FACTORS STRENGTHS (+) WEAKNESSES (-) · Global Brand Recognition · Multi-Brand Model · Aviation Hub in the Asia Pacific · Customer Service Oriented · Modern/Fuel Efficient aircraft fleet · Weak Presence in North America and China · Lack of Domestic Market EXTERNAL FACTORS OPPORTUNITIES (+) THREATS

Aircraft Security A Human Factors Concept

2860 words - 12 pages with these issues for some time now. Topics discussed in this paper are current and future trends affecting our safety. Many areas covered are successful and unsuccessful trends leading up to and after September 11th.IntroductionThe aviation industry was devastated by the events of September 11, 2001. How did these acts occur? Who is responsible for security? Many of these questions spread through the United States pondered by all citizens. Why

definition of psychologcal things - psychology - interactive essay

1591 words - 7 pages Psychoanalysis- Theories concerning consciousness and unconsciousness behavior Gestalt- Pattern having properties that can’t be derived from component parts Behaviorism- The theory of human or animal psychology studied through examination Humanism- Study of humanities Biopsychology- Effects on biological factors of behavior Cognitive- A mental process of judgement and memory Developmental- Growth I-O Health- soundness of body and mind What is the difference

Is the movie "Sully" accurate compared to the true story? - 10th grade English - compare and contrast

971 words - 4 pages efforts in saving all 155 passengers and crew members, Sullenberger is recognized as a national hero and an advocate for aviation safety. Clint Eastwood helps retell the story of the “Miracle on the Hudson” in the movie Sully, which was released in 2016. In the film Sully, directed by Clint Eastwood, some factual events are accurate, while some are twisted to create an antagonist in the movie. In the movie Sully, there are points in the plot that can

Natural Crime Versus Legal Crime

1402 words - 6 pages such as self defense) would be considered a natural crime since it is an innately evil act. Rape would be considered another one as well as Robbery. I would classify almost any crime that injures, harms, physically violates another human being as a natural crime. A few examples of positive laws may be some of the newer Aviation laws. The Aviation laws in the United States are laws that, “govern aircraft operations and the maintaining of aircraft

Graphene synthesis, key characteristics, and uses in future techologies - Year 11 Chemistry - Scientific Poster

1372 words - 6 pages of its unique 2D structure as well as the nature of its incredibly strong covalent bonds, graphene can be utilized in too many areas of technology to name. This poster has barely scratched the surface of graphene’s potential applications. There are many ways of synthesizing graphene, and these methods are predominantly environmentally friendly as well as relatively safe for human workers. While graphene is speculated to become the “miracle

avian influenza-emergency management and planning - York college, emergency planning - research paper

3347 words - 14 pages 2 | Page Avian Influenza By: Leon Thompson Aviation Management BUS 237 Emergency Planning and Management Dr. Robert I. Aceves Spring 2017 Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade level: 19.1 Introduction Lessons of life are learned in various circumstances. One of these circumstances is how a disaster or epidemic affects the world and society; financially and globally. Avian Influenza was first discovered in Italy in the nineteen hundred and the first

Similar Papers

Engineering Essay File Microsoft Word It Carlow Engineering

1932 words - 8 pages has helped societies come closer. With the development of aviation, peoplecan travel more freely. This has helped to promote migration and the exchange of ideas— two very important factors ofglobalisation which will be discussed in the following two sections (IATA, 2008). Source of Non-Monetary & Intangible benefits People from different parts of the world, with different views and ideas, now traverse across the world. It has for example

How Does Lithium Help Stabilise Mood? St Albans High School For Girls Essay

1722 words - 7 pages Helen Wright How does lithium help stabilise mood? An introduction to bipolar disorder and circadian rhythms Lithium, a hugely reactive metal, has entered in to the medical scene in the past 50 years for something rather unexpected. Its one outer shell electron allows it to react violently with substances as common as water due to it being easily oxidised, however through extensive research and clinical trials, it has been found to interact with

Impacts On The Invention Of The Plane History Research Paper

468 words - 2 pages have also enabled armies to support soldiers and supplies.” (Anderson) Economically, the Airplane as had a huge effect on today's Americans. “As the U.S. economy continues to improve in spite of recent global economic uncertainty and unrest, other U.S. industries and consumers depend on civil aviation’s ability to provide reliable value-added services that facilitate business and personal opportunities.” The cost of aviation is through the roof

Differences In Osha And Epa Essay

723 words - 3 pages Running head: Differences in OSHA & EPA 1Differences in OSHA & EPA 6Differences in OSHA & EPAJoshua W. MorganEmbry Riddle Aeronautical UniversityAbstractOSHA and EPA are two safety related fields that oversea safety operations in work related field, environmental safety standards, aviation, and even safety in the entertainment business. No matter where safety is needed, it is important to note that organizations like OSHA and the EPA