WEEK 1 FRIDAY
The * means that its ungrammatical, not possible
Do practice quiz, not graded!
· Linguistic is the scientific study and analysis of the structure of language
· It’s a science
· Studying and looking at language, using scientific methods
· Language is structured-it’s organized
· What does it mean to ‘know’ a language
· Can be understood by another speaker of the language
· Just by asking. If they can understand- presumably they know the same language
· Common knowledge
· If you hear someone speaking, you can usually tell if they speak it
· By recognize familiar and unfamiliar.
· Linguistic competence
· What you know about your language. The knowledge a speaker has about their native language
· The knowledge you know about your language is HIDDEN.
· How do linguistics study the unconscious knowledge
· By observing speakers, see what they do and say.
· this is called LINGUISTIC PERFORMANCE.
· You can indirectly observing by looking and listening.
· Levels of linguistic structure
LOWEST: Phonetics/Phonology (sounds)
Morphology (words, how their built)
Syntax (Sentence larger unites of words)
HIGHEST: Semantics (meaning that relates to word and sentences)
· Study of the physical properties of speech sounds
· The fundamental building blocks of language
· Focuses on acoustics, pronounce and how sounds are formed
· E.g, how many sounds of English are there? Around 40.
· The organization of the speech sounds
· E.g blick vs bnick
· The formation of words = suffix, prefix
· E.g quick adding ly = quickly
· E.g fastly = *fastly (ungrammatically)
· The structure of phrases and sentences.
· Putting words together to sentences.
· Mixing words can get different meanings, you can mix, but you cant go to far.
· E.g the cat chased the dog vs the dog chased the cat.
· Cant do “the cat dog the chased”
· The study of meaning of words and or sentences.
· The meaning of near can have multiple meanings
· Proximity, how close something is
· But not inside.
· E.g. “I once shot an elephant in my pajamas”
· Who is wearing the pajamas?
· Me, or the elephant is in my pajamas,
· Different meanings without even changing the order
· Linguistic competence
· Lexicon (mental lexicon)
· Mental dictionary, that stores everything WE know about our words, meanings, etc
· Mental grammar
· More of the rules, a mental grammar.
· A system of rules that govern how sounds of our language word, how its built etc.
· All the things that we consider ungrammatical e.g bnick, fastly, is in this section of mental grammar.
· Grammar in linguistics can mean different things
· Mental grammar is linguistic competence that tells us the rules.
· Most people in grammar think of grammar based on school- prescriptive grammar.
· Prescriptive grammar prescribes rules governing what people should/shouldn’t say to be considered correct or proper.
· E.g its not funner, its more fun.
· My friend and I, not me and my friend.