Industry Report Water Supply And Irrigation Environmental Science/ Safety And Regulations Research/Industry Report

5934 words - 24 pages

Water Supply and Irrigation Industry Report
Perry Francois
Environmental Regulation
The report focuses on the Water Supply and Irrigation industry in the US. It highlights the roles that the industry has played as far as environmental issues are concerned. The report delves on the environmental impact of the activities of the industry and the steps the industry players have taken over a period of time to alleviate the negative impact associated to emissions, hazardous pollutant dischargers in water and agrochemicals control. Additionally, the report explores the various federal and state laws, industrial regulations and international treaties that are aimed to guide the operations of the industries to be environmentally friendly. Through the use of California as sample state of study, the report delves in handful legislation in California that regulates this industry in compliance with the federal laws. Lastly, the report delves in the level of compliance and compares how enforcement of such environmental policies and regulations compare between states and nations.
Water Supply and Irrigation Industry Profile
Water supply and irrigation industry in the United States started mostly during the agrarian revolution. Due to unreliable patterns in rainfall in the United States, the farmers devised ways to ensure continuous food production and water availability even in the absence of rainfall. The initial stages of water supply were rudimentary and involved digging of wells which people used to draw water through levers and other methods. The initial method of irrigation was flood and trench irrigation method and mostly was used in the production of rice. However, with the advancement of knowledge and discoveries, water supply and irrigation industry adopted sophisticated methods of operations. Currently, there are various water supply and irrigation companies in the United States, virtually dozens in a single state. The industries are subject to industrial and environmental laws and operate after dully achieving the set standards and after issuance of permits.
Water Supply and Irrigation industry contribute significantly to the economy of the US. It is estimated that over 9.8 of all US cropland was irrigated in 2014. The industry created millions of jobs for individuals and contributed to over $992 billion to the GDP. The contribution translates to 5.5% of the total GDP (Haldane & Antle, 2015). The use of farm inputs such as agrochemicals and irrigation related materials contributed to over 136 billion dollars translating to 1% GDP in 2014. According to USDA, water supply and irrigation industry aim at achieving sustainable food production and clean water to people in the US. Through regulations and compliance, the industry has thrived to position itself as the major contributor to the economy.
The industry operations are common in states such as Colorado, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, California and Oregon. According to the USDA report, the irrigated area in these states expanded by 9% in 2017. The report further asserts that irrigated agriculture used over 8.5 million acre-feet of water nationally, translating to average 325, 851 gallons of water per acre annually. The demand for water supply and irrigation has simply risen exponentially if it is weighed against the past uses.
The industry is categorized under the Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generators (CESQGs) is bound by various operational requirements. The industry is EPA compliant and subject to constant environmental and health inspections that are carried out regularly by the federal and state organs. The emissions from the industry are limited since only a few pieces of machinery are run by diesel. Though there are some environmental concerns such as salinization during irrigation processes, the industry has put up mitigating measures to ensure that these environmental concerns are addressed. Through compliance with EPA, state regulations and internal environmental management systems, the company has demonstrated mechanisms and high level of compliance.
The industry is anchored on the vision to lead in providing safe and clean water to people and simultaneously promote agricultural activities through environmentally accommodative ways. The vision outlines that for the industry to be considered effective, it must strive to provide water services that abide by the regulations on safety and at the same time ensure that its agricultural activities through the use of irrigation are compliant to the policies, laws and regulations. The mission of the industry is to achieve maximum food production through irrigation and supply healthy and clean water to the inhabitants of USA.
What the Industry Does
Water supply and Irrigation industry carry out various functions. First, through the partnership with the various states, the industry, under close supervision, supplies water to various homes and farms within the various states. The water supplied is subject to examination from the federal and state government and constant checking of the standards. In residential areas, the water is supplied through pipes and conduits. It should be noted that the water supplied is subject to EPA regulations and various other legislation. The industry further concerns itself with the provision of water-related awareness to the local communities. These range from water treatment, conservation and hygiene. The sensitization has created awareness among the residents and given them a different perspective on water-related issues.
On the hand, the industry provides irrigation services such as farm irrigation, irrigation materials and lessons on irrigation activities. The industry produces approximately one million gallons of water daily. The huge amount of water is not only used for consumption but also used for food and crop production through irrigation. The farms are irrigated through various ways such as sprinkler irrigation, drip irrigation, furrow irrigation and flood or border irrigation. The irrigation services cover an area of approximately 40000 square acres per state. Furrow, sprinkler and flood irrigation is usually used and a tremendous amount of water is used in the process. The water used in these irrigation activities are supplied by the contracted companies and in most cases passed through a series of test to ascertain its suitability to the crops and the environmental impacts (Woodard, 2016). In some instances, the equipment used to supply water during irrigation is used to apply foliage fertilizer and pesticides. However, any extra use of the irrigation pipes must be subject to inspection and treatment after use to avoid misappropriate use of chemicals in the farm. The industry further provides irrigation equipment to farmers who have their own source. It is the responsibility of the contracted company to install irrigation equipment to the farmers and advise them on various appropriate methods that are compliant with the federal and state regulations and laws. Therefore, the company must value the sensitization of its potential customers and it is in that regard that the industry has devised various ways of farmer sensitization and education. The sensitization is carried out in order to alleviate the negative impact of irrigation of the environment and appropriate water use to curb issues of water scarcity and undue flooding.
How the Activities of the Industry Affects the Environment
Water supply and irrigation industry in the US undertakes various activities revolving from water supply and irrigation of farms. The activities carried out by the industry has a tremendous impact on the environment. The activities usually lead to environmental degradation and pollution in precise. According to (Percival et al., 2017), the following are the activities that lead to environmental degradation.
First, most of the machines that are used in pumping water and supplying water to homes and farms are propelled by fossil fuels. The machines are heavily reliant on diesel to run and in this regard, the irrigation pump emissions and the diesel propelled pumps poses an environmentally unfriendly climate. The emissions pose serious health implications since people around the company are highly susceptible to contract respiratory related complications which are results of the emissions. The emissions contain a high number of carbon-related compounds which speeds up the depletion of the ozone layer and consequently playing a vital part in climate change. On the other hand, all the growth and development of both the plants and animals living around the company is subjected to risks of developing stunted growth due to the probable oil spillage by the companies associated to the industry. Usually, the machines in the companies are subject to change in oil and other related hazard chemicals during servicing. The company has a relatively large yard where the servicing of the vehicles and the other machinery are done. Therefore, the aquatic lives where the chemicals and oil are being released are in threat of being affected by the undertakings. The safety of such water bodies used for disposal is not further guaranteed to live the lives of both aquatic and other animals depending on that water for consumption at very high risk.
Similarly, the expansion of the activities of the industry to include extensive irrigation has led to increased erosion. Through the use of extension methods such as basin irrigation and furrow irrigation, the fields are always flooded with excess water eventually this has led to erosion. Since the water pumped in these fields are under intense pressure, the top rich layers of the soil are often washed away leaving the soil bare and further exposing it to other adverse erosions when it rain. The washed away soil is often carried to the nearby water bodies leading to siltation of those water bodies and their eventual death. Without proper evaluation of the environmental impact on these activities, most of the farms will be rendered infertile translating to the prolonged use of fertilizers that would consequently lead to the inclusion of excess minerals in the soil.
Waterlogging and salinization also result from the irrigation related activities carried out by the industry. It should be noted that waterlogging leads to poor or inadequate drainage and excessive irrigation of the farms. In some cases, seepage of from the ditches and the water canals are also believed to be as a result of waterlogging. One of the detrimental effects of waterlogging is that it concentrates salts through alkalization which is a form of salinization. Alkalization is harmful to the crops since their salts are drawn from the lower side of the soil profile to the roots of the plants and it is a hard process to mitigate or reverse once it has started. Irrigation of saline soils and use of any irrigation water can lead to irrigation-induced salinity. The company notes that excess salinity around the root of the plant makes the plant to have stunted growth thanks to the increased energy that the plant uses to absorb water from the soil. Irrigation-induced salinity is not only detrimental to the farms but also pose adverse effects on people and other water sources around. The water sources which are saline affects the ecosystem of the aquatic animals and other wildlife that are dependent on the water source for survival. The irrigation activities of the company if left unchecked could play a huge part in perpetuating the demise of such aquatic lives and wildlife in general.
The industrial activities in this industry perpetuate waterborne and water-related diseases. Though the industry is committed to ensuring that the water used for consumption and irrigation is of high standards, there is a probability that the water could be contaminated at some point during the whole procedure of supply. The probable contamination could cause water-related diseases such as cholera and skin related infection. Therefore, if good measures are not put in place to ensure that any discharge is checked, they pose a danger to the users of the water. On the other hand, during the irrigation process especially by the use of basin irrigation, there are high chances of infection with schistosomiasis. Bilharzia thrives well where water is stagnant and infested with snails. Basin irrigation and poor drainage system in most of the farms that contract the company offers a perfect platform for these vectors to proliferate. The effects of the activities do not only pose a health risk but also creates an environment a microclimate aspect which aids the development of the pests which are harmful to the crops and the environment at large.
Similarly, the use of agrichemicals by various companies compromise water quality supplied in these farms. The companies not only irrigate the lands but also apply foliage fertilizers and other agrochemicals to the crops using the irrigation mechanisms put in place. To some extent the agrochemicals are excessively applied on the farms. The excess agrochemicals wash to the water bodies when it rains. Consequently, the chemicals are washed to the rivers and other water bodies around the farms. Some chemicals are not easily washed from the crops and this leads them to stick around posing health challenges to the people and other animals. When the people and animals are in contact with the excess agrochemicals used, there is the high probability that they would be affected as a result of poisoning either from the consumption of the chemicals or in contact with the chemicals. The industry notes with concern that these activities are bound to disrupt the normal environmental and ecological conditions that directly affect the plants and animals in the vicinity (Alexander & Clark, 2016).
Lastly, the industry is heavily reliant on diverted water from a river source and groundwater. The diversion of river water for large agriculture projects have led to changes in hydrology and limnology of the water basins. The reduced river flow because of diversion has seen an increased saltwater accumulation and consequently affected the ground waters. Further, the water use to the other users has tremendously decreased since the industry uses a huge amount of water from the diverted river. The activity has brought a huge conflict with both the animals and the people dependent on the water source. To some extent, the rate of dilution of water used in the municipalities has been greatly reduced. Therefore, when the companies within the municipalities discharge their wastes in the water, the river gets contaminated since it cannot dilute the discharges from the factories. When excess waste is added in the water bodies, they become hazardous and unfit for use. Similarly, excess waste in the water body has perpetuated the growth of water weeds such as water hyacinth with has disrupted the ecological life of various marine animals in the rivers.
Mitigation Measures
Though the industry is plagued by myriad issues that negatively impact the environment, it has put in place various mitigation measures to ensure that the problems are spontaneously eliminated or eradicated altogether. The measures range from compliance with the regulations from the federal and state governments, adoption of the environmental management system which is used as an internal parameter and ensuring the regular check is conducted by EPA and the various states. Apart from compliance and strict adherence to the laws, regulations and internal policies, the company has devised several ways to mitigate the environmentally unsound practices highlighted above.
First, in compliance with the clean water act, the industry has made it a tradition that the process of water purification is thoroughly inspected and counterchecked and tested to verify the purity and safety of the water before it is supplied through pipes and water trucks. The companies under the industry have employed a quality assurance officer to ensure that the processes of water purification and supply strictly adhere to the expectations and dictates of the Clean Water Act. The strict adherence with the set regulations has seen the company awarded as the best in supplying clean water in California in the past two years. On the other hand, the company has devised a strategy that will ensure that all piped water is checked after six months to ensure that they ascertain the level of lead deposits in the metallic pipes. Recently, the company started an initiative where only certified water pipes which are free from lead are used. The effort is meant to help reduce the cases of lead poisoning that results from lead deposits that are found in the water pipes. In the company level, the company has acquired a technology that detects the level of lead accumulation in the company and constantly changes the potentially affected water pipes.
Regarding the mitigation measures put in place to address waterlogging and salinity, the industry policymakers are encouraging the installation of sufficient drainage system in the farm. The drainage system has been proved to reduce the salinity of the soil. The clogged drainage system in farms is always cleared to ensure that flooding farms are free from waterlogging that often result to the accumulation of alkaline salts and acts as agents of other water-related diseases (Larson, 2017). According to the environmental management system of the industry, it is a policy that the company only involves in irrigation of those farms that have a well laid down drainage system. The policy has seen the reduction of salinity and water clogging. On the other hand, the company hugely encourages the use of micro-irrigation initiatives that reduce the use of excess water in the farms. For instance, through the use of drip irrigation, the precise quantity of water that is needed by the crops are supplied and at a precise time. The practice has limited the cases of pumping more water in the farms than the required quantity by the crops. The economic use of water in the farms have greatly alleviated waterlogging and microclimatic conditions that encourage the survival of pests that in turn affects crops. In nutshell, the company is of the opinion that drainage infrastructure is essential in the reduction of salinity and water clogging and at the same time putting emphasis on economic water use.
The industry has a plan to ensure that toxic fumes from the irrigation pumps and machines propelled by diesel are subject to CAA compliance and other measures that would render them less toxic to the environment. For instance, every company must put in place filters that ensure that toxic fumes released by the company are thoroughly rerouted, filtered and thoroughly cleaned before they are released to the atmosphere. In this respect, the company ensures that the fuel used by the machines are free from additives such as sulphide compounds and lead traces. Therefore, through this initiative, the company has radically reduced the release of toxic components in the air which would have been hazardous to the environment of contributed to the depletion layer.
In an effort to combat the use of excess fertilizers and agrochemicals in the farms, water supply and irrigation industry has ensured that all the quantities of fertilizers and other agrochemicals are subject to quantification and inspection. Before application of any foliage fertilizer, it is a responsibility of the company through the advice of the agricultural officer to ascertain the levels of the minerals that should be added to the soil to boost the soil fertility. Consequently, the company devises ways to add the required nutrients and agrochemicals in a manner that their application would not result to a mineral imbalance in the soil and poisoning as a result of the excessive application of agrochemicals in the soil.
To curb the negative effect that the diversion of the river would have on the environment, the industry is shifting its dependent on diverted waters to the use of groundwater. The company has over forty wells that supplement the diverted water. After the assessment of the impact of such diversion would have on the environment, the industry has devised a water collection strategy from the rivers that would strictly collect the water that has only overflown during heavy rains leading to flooding. Further, to ensure that water shortage is not caused by the company to the other residents of different municipalities, the company encourages recycling of water used to cool the engines and other wastewater used in the companies. Various companies have a recycling plant which ensures that used water in the company is promptly purified, recycled and used by both the community and the irrigation farms. The farmers have also being sensitized on ensuring that they set up a recycling mechanism that would see that excess water in their farms have been recycled and used in their farms to avoid water wastage and putting undue pressure on the water sources in existence.
Permits in Possession
According to the Safe Drinking Water Act, it is required that any person willing to start a public water system must secure a domestic water supply permit from the relevant department. Water supply and irrigation industry specialized in public water supply and irrigation activities are subject to permits. The permits symbolize the responsibility endowed on the various companies in line with the federal and state laws and regulations such to provide safe water for human consumption. The companies must have various permits that revolve around public water supply and irrigation services it offers.
First, a company at California has a permit from the California Department of public water supply. The state through the department of public health issues water supply permit dubbed environmental information form. The permit is subject to compliance with other regulation and laws stipulated by the state and the federal governments. The permit requires that the company declare everything associated with the services they offer, place the company is located, emergency and other connections in place and water capacity, both ground and surface water capacity.
The company is also in possession of the public water system permit. The permit through the regulation of Division of Drinking Water (DDW) oversees water recycling initiatives by the company, allows water treatment devices and ensures that water system security is enhanced among other functions.
On the hand, the company has a technical, managerial and financial capacity permit (TMF). The permit is issued after the water supply company demonstrated its ability to supply water in a long-term basis to ensure sustainability and compliance with the applicable laws governing drinking water supplies by the state and the federal governments. The permit stipulates that any given company must demonstrate financial strength, technical ability and astute leadership to ensure there is a sustainable supply of water.
Regarding irrigation, the company has a Landscape Irrigation Contractor permit. The state California demands that all the irrigation companies and contractors must obtain a landscape contractors license which is issued after successful completion of the state-sponsored exams. The permit is also issued if one has three years of training and work. Most employees of Agip are licensed by this body.
Laws Regulating the Water and Irrigation Company
The company is subject to various laws and regulations by the state and federal governments. The laws and regulations are set to address the issues of concern around the environment, health and safety of employees, and the quality of the services offered. According to (Woodard, 2016) the laws are as follows;
Clean Water Act
Through various regulatory mechanisms, the industry has devised ways to ensure it complies with the act. This is achieved by ensuring that any pollutants discharged into the waters are subject to regulation from the EPA. On the other hand, through the partnership with the EPA officials, the company has adopted the recommendations that would see it produce clean water to the public. The Act has proven important in reducing the discharge of pollutants in the water bodies by the company.
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
Though this Act puts emphasis on the regulations on selling the agrochemicals, it also has laid requirements on the usage. The companies supplying water and irrigation services must obtain a permit from the EPA to ensure that the use of the agrochemicals are regulated and checked so as they don't cause an unreasonable extreme effect on the environment. The compliance is achieved through regular inspection by the EPA and in compliance with the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
Pollution Prevention Act (PPA)
Through digging of various wells for groundwater supply, various companies have devised ways to ensure that the natural resources are not overexploited for use on industrial purposes. The companies have ensured that it has reduced the pollution rates using cost-effective measures such as using solar powers in substitute of diesel-run generators when running lighter machines. The employment of solar panels has significantly reduced toxic emissions by the companies. The waste management system is also improved by embracing recycling and ensuring that the disposal of rather toxic materials in water sources is significantly alleviated. The use of drip irrigation and strict adherence to the company’s EMS demonstrates its compliance with this Act.
Occupational and Safety Act
Every company is required to demonstrate that they value its employees’ safety and health. In compliance with the above Act, the companies have made it a policy to ensure that all the workers put on protective gears during their activities at work. When handling chemicals and other tasks in any company, it is a policy that all the workers must keep themselves from the excessive noise, unsanitary conditions, extreme temperatures and other mechanical dangers. Through the dictates of this Act, every company is subject to inspection by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, OSHA (Crane, 2018).
Toxic Substances Control Act
Through the undertakings of EPA, the industry players continue to cooperate through reporting, recording and testing the requirements of the toxic substances as required by the Act. The company further does not use the chemicals such as asbestos, lead-based paint and PCBs as recommended by the TSCA. When applying foliage fertilizers and other pesticides, the company strictly uses regulated chemicals in the farms. The come is also in possession of TSCA inventory that lists over 83,000 chemicals that are commercially acceptable for use.
Clean Air Act
In an effort to abide by section 112 of the Act, the companies have installed a maximum achievable technology that is inspected after every eight years by EPA. The technology helps in ascertaining the residual risk existence, revise various ways to address the risks and how the risks impact on the environment. The companies have relatively reduced the emissions of hazardous air pollutants through compliance with the Act.
California State Laws and Regulations.
California Clean Air Act and Vehicle Emission Standards
The companies in California have adopted vehicle emission standards that have been put across by the state of California (Woodard, 2016). In an attempt to reduce the vehicle emissions, the companies have fitted the vehicles with filters and also an exemption in the use of additives of sulphide and lead compounds. The filters have significantly reduced the dangers posed by the emissions.
Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act
According to Proposition 65, the industry has liaised with the various state governors to establish those chemicals which are detrimental to people. The chemicals such as asbestos are known to be carcinogenic, having adverse effects on reproductive health and resulting in birth defects. In that regard, the companies have earmarked the chemicals and laid down, mechanisms to ensure that they are not in contact with the people, workers and potential clients. Their use in industry is subsequently outlawed.
Waste Management Act
Solid waste management is a problem that the industry has faced in its operation. In line to stream its operations and as per the dictates of the Act, the industry is devising various ways to ensure that solid waste materials are correctly disposed of. The disposal mechanisms are in line with the requirements of the Act which requires that waste facility to be erected to ensure that the solid waste is correctly managed. Currently, the companies under the industry are subject to inspection by state organs to ensure compliance.
The California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA)
To abide by the regulations of the Act, the companies in California must seek a permit for approval from the state agency who conducted environmental impact report. The report identified varied effects of the water supply and irrigation projects on the environment. The prior report indicated significant environmental effects and proposals to curb such effects. The enforcement of CEQA takes a private litigation by the Office of the Attorney General. No statutory body is mandated to oversee the enforcement of this Act in California.
Hazardous Waste Control Act
Since the legislation of the Act in 1972, the state has set up standards to ensure that hazardous waste is controlled promptly. The industry has initiated has a mechanism that ensures that the hazardous chemicals are controlled right from the time of purchase to disposal. The poisonous materials result from agrochemicals used in the application of foliage fertilizers and other agrochemicals.
International Treaties
The International Declaration of Cleaner Production
Through the requirements of the treaty which the US is a signatory, the water supply and irrigation industry is using a moderate mechanism that would see its emissions are reduced and focus shifted on implementing cleaner industrial production. Subsequently, the company is regularly monitored to ensure that the efforts are achieved.
The Rotterdam Convention (1998)
The federal and state governments have helped the industry greatly in complying by the dictates of the treaty. The stakeholders in the industry do not import any hazardous chemicals without the consent and declaration from the federal and state agencies. It has ensured that the introduction of hazardous chemicals by the company is nonexistent.
The Industrial Compliance
The water and supply industries are bound by various laws, regulations and policies that set requisite demands to be granted permission to operate. It should be noted that various laws and regulations have different agencies that are tasked with compliance. Through EPA and California Water Board and other environmental agencies at the state level, compliance is a must for the operations to continue. Failure to comply does not only attract heavy fines but also protracted litigations that would ruin the image of the company and result to losses. The process of certification is quite laborious and time-consuming (Morgenstern, 2014). Consequently, there is a feeling that most of the requirements in the irrigation and water supply industry are unachievable and unrealistic. The fees paid for permits and certification are exorbitant across the states with California taking an exorbitant rate for permits and certification.
Lax enforcement
The level of lax enforcement is varied across the states in the US. However, California is notoriously strict when it comes to enforcement of the laws and regulations. It should be noted that various federal laws such as the Clean Water Act borrows heavily from the Californian Clean Water Act. In other states, the enforcement is not so stringent. For instance, in Tennessee, EPA criticized regulators for shortcomings in enforcing the Clean Water Act. The federal government often delegate enforcement roles to the state officials which in turn demonstrate laxity in enforcement. The lax in enforcement has resulted in the relevant companies maximizing profits since they forgo fines. Companies often benefit from lax enforcement since they don't invest in new equipment in compliance with the requirements of the laws and regulations. Further, they forgo the payment of fines which they accumulate from violations of the said policies. Therefore, laxity in enforcement is beneficial to companies but the weigh adversely on the environment.
The degree of cleaning emission since the establishment of CAA
Since the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, there has been a significant reduction of pollutions which are based on emissions. In most instances, the industry has complied with the regulations of cleaning the emissions and based on the reports by the EPA, since 1990 to 2017, the level of six common pollutants such as ozone, lead, carbon monoxide have tremendously reduced. The industry has averted the ailments that are associated with the emissions. It is estimated that the quality of air has tremendously improved based on the cleaning of the chimneys and the emissions. The report compiled by EPA highlight that over 41 states in the US have achieved air quality requirements. For instance, due to regulations on emissions from cars and industries, 205000 deaths have been prevented and cases of other ill health related to toxic emissions have been reduced. Similarly, the March 2011 EPA study revealed that due to constant cleaning of the emissions and compliance with the CAA, the crop yield has significantly improved as compared to 1990. The improvement in the yield is directly tied to the clean and quality air which has been filtered thanks to the CAA.
On the other hand, through the Act, the locomotives starting in 2014 are 90% cleaner. Through the EPA finalized programs to ensure cleaner vehicle emissions, line haul, and passenger rail and switch rail are usually recommended to the factory to ensure that they comply with the CAA emissions. Through the enforcement of the use of the vehicles, the emissions have been cut by approximately 90% thus reducing nitrogen oxide emissions by 80%. The proposal saves the water supply and irrigation industry the amount of money spent on cleaning the emissions on regular basis. Further, the enactment of CAA has seen the reduction of sulphur gasoline by 90%. The regulation levels have reduced sulphur in diesel by over 99%. Therefore, since the enactment of CAA, the water supply and irrigation industry have greatly reduced emissions through constant cleaning of the emissions or complying with the CAA and its proposals to cut the emission of toxic pollutants (Crane, 2018).
The difference in Enforcement of Air Pollution Measures
In the United States, enforcement of air pollution measures is an initiative of EPA and the state agencies. In that regard, though different states have their emission regulations and policies, they are bound by the dictates of various federal legislation such as CAA. The enforcement of the CAA compliance is delegated to state agencies. The state agencies' commitment to enforcing the CAA is highly dependent on many factors. In California for instance, the environmental agency in the state is strict on compliance compared to Tennessee. In the global sphere, not all the countries are concerned with controlling emissions in water and irrigation industry. For instance, in most developing countries, they use irrigation to produce food to wade off famine which plagues those countries. Most of those countries are not bound by the international treaties about emissions. Therefore, there is a commitment to enforcing emission-related regulations, laws or treaties in developed countries than in developing countries. The cost of enforcement of such regulations is relatively high to some countries hence the huge disparity in commitment to enforce the emission regulations.
Though their laws that govern pollutant management in the US, it should be noted that compliance with these laws is what could bring a significant impact. Water supply and irrigation industry contribute heavily to environmental degradation. Therefore, there is a need for both developed and developing countries to take the initiative of reducing emissions that are associated with water supply and irrigation industries. The laws and regulations governing emissions should be applied in a manner that consideration is given to the environment and health of humans, aquatic and wild animals.
Alexander, S., & Clark, B. (2016). The Benefits, Challenges, and Impediments of Greywater Use in EPA Region 5.
Crane, D. T. (2018). OSHA and elongate mineral particles. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.
Haldane, J. B. S., & Antle, J. M. (2015). Agricultural productivity: measurement and explanation. Routledge.
Larson, C. D. (2017). Historical development of the national primary drinking water regulations. In the Safe Drinking Water Act (1989) (pp. 3-16). CRC Press.
Morgenstern, R. D. (2014). Economic analyses at EPA: assessing regulatory impact. Routledge.
Percival, R. V., Schroeder, C. H., Miller, A. S., & Leape, J. P. (2017). Environmental regulation: Law, science, and policy. Wolters Kluwer Law & Business.
Woodard, C. (2016). A Look at Laws Authorizing Uses of Conserved and Saved Water in California, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.


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673 words - 3 pages , starting with 10 mL and increasing by 10 mL each time. A piece of paper will be placed on top of the cup and the cup will be inverted. Independent Variable: Volume of Water (mL) Dependent Variable: Volume of cup (mL) Rim diameter of cup (cm) Temperature of water (celsius) Density of paper (g/mL) Thickness of paper (mm) Ambient temperature (celsius) Equipment: 88 mL great value brand bathroom cups (5.5 cm) xerox brand paper, cut into 4.25” x 5.5” peel

lab safety for 11th grade earth and space - science - instructions

3535 words - 15 pages ​To avoid electric shock, never use electrical equipment around water, or when the equipment is wet or your hands are wet. Be sure cords are untangled and cannot trip anyone. Unplug equipment not in use. Physical Safety ​When an experiment involves physical activity, avoid injuring yourself or others. Alert your teacher if there is any reason you should not participate. Disposal ​Dispose of chemicals and other laboratory materials safely. Follow

Research report about the correlation of age and gender - Murdoch university - Research report

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Research Report

2294 words - 10 pages interviews" and "learner diaries". Rao's study of teaching and learning styles (2001) has investigated traditional learning styles in East Asian. However, these studies failed to include information about overseas students' self perceived performance in the four language skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking.This current research aimed to determine what language learning styles overseas students studying English in Australia use. Also it

Pool Safety For Children And How To Ensure That Children Are Safe When Playing In Backyard Pools. It Includes Government Regulations

2555 words - 11 pages serious burn, poisoning and other injury if children come into contact with pool chemicals. It is also important to ensure that chemical levels in pools are not excessive.Legal regulations and legislation regarding pools:Currently, in Australia the regulations surrounding pools and child safety are that:*If your pool was built before 1 August 1990 then you do not have to have a swimming pool fence as such, but the pool MUST be isolated from access