Chapter 9 - Intelligence and Psychological Testing
Psychology is a science!
It is an empirically based discipline where the truth is sought (and approximated) via strict methods of research. The findings in the science of psychology are constantly being scrutinized, retested, dismissed, or revised as new findings dictate, and then researched again. Experiments are started, hypotheses are formed, they are tested, and hypotheses are confirmed Intelligence One of the most frequently researched areas of psychology in history has been human intelligence Why?
Nature Vs. Nurture Argument- Are we born with attributes, or do we develop these
Dark Side Simon Binet
History of Views of Intelligence
John Locke (1632-1704), Philosopher & Physician
He believed our minds are a Tabula Rasa or a "blank slate" that is written upon by
I. e. Not having been born with any propensity for intelligence That we begin with acquiring simple ideas (framework), and then, through experience, we build more complex understandings
I. e. That we only learn to be intelligent, and it is not something we can just have. He believed in Nurture, NOT Nature!
Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) Polymath
He believed that genetic endowments were largely responsible for abilities
He observed "Success and eminence" over several generations of the same family
He concluded that Nature wins over Nurture
He believed in "Hereditary Genius" - that great intelligence is inherited
He believed, "genius ran in the family" If you did not come from a family of geniuses, then you would not be a genius. Why might Galton have concluded that intelligence and "eminence" is inherited?
Eminence: Being of distinction, renown, greatness, fame, or celebrity
Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) American Psychologist
Spent most of his career at teacher college, Columbia University. (Graduate School in
Education for Columbia)
Studied Comparative Psychology, learning, and connectionism
Comparative Psychology: Study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals
- involves studying the following:
1) Phylogenetic history of the animal - (Felis Silvestris Lybica) (African Wildcat or House
2) Adaptive significance of the behavior - (purring/rubbing to solicit attention, food and
3) Development of behavior - According to one school of thought, cats develop their
purring around humans because it successfully garnered positive human activities.
So in effect, cats, over their domestication, have developed a way to manipulate our
human need to nurture Human Example? ??
Smiling. People who smile feel:
Not a threat
We are drawn to people who smile and tend to like them more which is why it is a 'need of
survival'. It is also highly adaptive Connectionism: The study of mental or behavioral activity resulting f...