Interdepartmental Communication To Reduce Costly Errors In A Small Urban Company

3208 words - 13 pages

Outline of the Project EnvironmentThe main clients in this context of the study are the small urban companies. The main problem lies in the fact they often face severe miscommunication problems that ultimately results in the loss of person-hour and this loss is ultimately translated into loss of production hours and thus results in financial loss. (Ivancevich, 2005)The term interdepartmental communication relates to inter personnel office communication such as phone, documents, memos, email, FAX and voicemail. These communicative systems could be termed as formal communication system. There are also other forms of interdepartmental communication and it could be termed as informal communication in interdepartmental. Informal communications could be defined as taking place synchronously in face-to-face settings. (Johanson, 1977)For most office workers, informal communication is a frequent interdepartmental activity and for many jobs such as management, it represents the most frequent interdepartmental activity. Questionnaire data produce estimates of between 25% and 70% of time being spent in face-to-face interaction, with these figures depending on job type. Similarly, and again, depending of the industry formal communication system may occupy about 54% to about 91% of the time spent on an average. (Kindleberger, 2006)The entire feature of this business-based communication depends on the organizational structure that is predominantly processed based depending on the issue of interdepartmental communication system, particularly for small urban companies. Thus, it becomes relevant to understand, evaluate and analyze the mode of interdepartmental communication and the effects of to help reduce costly errors in a small urban company. (Andrad, 2004)Problem to be Solved and Indication of SolutionIn a process-based structure, an organization is fundamentally divided into its organizational units based on its core processes. Process is necessary for defining the industrial scope of the organizational and a process-based structure can implement these processes much faster. Various other processes can also be added to the existing units for their well organized and effective functioning. They have a very dissimilar structure than the traditional organizations eliminating the functional and product oriented problems faced by them. Having a process based structure makes the perspective of the organization completely customer oriented utilizing a horizontal business view in the various departments. (Umpleby, 2006, July) The entire feature of this business-based communication depends on the organizational structure that is predominantly processed based depending on the issue of interdepartmental communication system, particularly for small urban companies. In a process-based structure, an organization is fundamentally divided into its organizational units based on its core processes. (Dunning, 2002b) Process is necessary for defining the industrial scope of the organizational and a process-based structure can implement these processes much faster. Various other processes can also be added to the existing units for their well organized and effective functioning. They have a very dissimilar structure than the traditional organizations eliminating the functional and product oriented problems faced by them. Having a process based structure makes the perspective of the organization completely customer oriented utilizing a horizontal business view in the various departments. (Umpleby, 2006, July) As a result, it is to be seen if it were possible to understand and evaluate the amount loss due to miscommunication then it would be possible to formulate a mode of method that would enable to evaluate the proper mode of communication system that would save time. (Mason, 2002)Relevance of Strategic Business ITStrategic Business IT is a systematic and complex strategy that is planned top-down for increasing and implementing effective organizational change. It mainly aims to change the structure, attitudes, standards and thinking of an organization through interventions so that it can adapt to new and better challenges, technology and marketing strategies. (Dunning, 2002a)It does not simply make an organization better but focuses on interpreting and supervising an organizational change by involving organizational planning, expression, system improvement and analysis bringing about the required result. It is characterized by individuality, learning, inspiration, sociology and psychology and its qualities are interdisciplinary. It has three components - diagnosis, intervention or action and evaluation, which need to be properly controlled to bring about an effective change. (Dunning, 1999)Intervention is the second stage of Strategic Business IT. The various sets of structurally planned activities that are a part of the Strategic Business IT program and followed by the individuals and groups in an organization for improving their performance are called Strategic Business IT techniques or interventions. These change strategies or interventions are planned and implemented through change agents. Interventions include structural and third Party Peace making interventions, Inter-group and Team interventions, Process Consultation, Sensitivity Training and Survey Feedback. Extensively used Strategic Business IT interventions are Quality of work life (QWL) projects, Management by Objectives (MBO), Organizational Transformation, Quality Circles, Parallel Learning Structures, Total Quality Management (TQM), Process Re-engineering, self-managed teams and large-scale systems change. (Weber, 1996)The major organizational change method used in Strategic Business IT is Action Research. The necessity for organizational change is strongly concerned with permanent and efficient social change and is related to people's actions since they will adopt new changes only when they actively participate in decisions involving them. Thus, once the technology of Strategic Business IT or IT communication method is employed the entire problem would be solved. (Rondinelli, 2000)Aim and ObjectivesThe two main types of prototype system that have been built both involve synchronous audio and video. The first provides a permanently open link between the commons areas of two geographically separated sites, with the aim of facilitating unplanned conversations between workers at the two locations. Commons area connections have been moderately successful in promoting brief social interactions. However, there was evidence that briefly seeing someone over the video link was less likely to promote an extended interaction, than an equivalent face-to-face sighting. (Bowditch, 2004)The second class of system for remote informal communications involves Desktop video, either point-to-point or between multiple locations. Some of these systems provide additional visual information about the communication status of the call recipient, using a "glance" feature. Here callers can check the availability of their recipient, by opening a visual link for a few seconds, prior to initiating the conversation. An eventuation of one such system showed, however, that it does not effectively replicate face-to-face interaction. (Schneider, 1989)One positive result however, was that people always chose to use videophone over phone atone. Another study found that Desktop videoconferencing partially replaced the use of other media such ax email or brief face-to-face meetings. It also increased the use of Shared Workspaces and wax also perceived to reduce phone use.Interdepartmental communications also raise numerous questions for interaction theories. Interdepartmental conversations are mainly opportunistic, so how do participants co-ordinate and initiate them, given that they are unanticipated? There are also often time lags between interdepartmental interactions: how do people maintain and re-establish context, given such lags? Finally, interdepartmental communications often occur between frequent interactions who often share large amounts of background knowledge. What affect does this shared knowledge have on initiating conversations and managing conversation context? (Dunning, 2002b) Thus, the single SBIT project aim is to determine if it is possible to utilize interdepartmental communication system to reduce cost in small urban companies.In this context of interdepartmental communication system, the perceptions of data also have ramifications for conversational theory. Conversations are traditionally regarded as having a beginning and ending, with conversational context evolving through the discussion. In contrast, we found that informal communications seem to consist of one long intermittent conversation consisting of multiple unplanned fragments often lacking openings and closings. Thus, the fundamental question remainsHow could interdepartmental communication be improved to help reduce costly errors in a small urban company?It can always be stated that Qualitative research is a process that includes interpretative paradigm under the measures of theoretical assumptions and the entire approach is based on sustainability that is depended on people's experience in terms of communication. It can also be mentioned that the basic target of qualitative research is instrumented towards social context under normal circumstances where it would be possible to interpret, decode and describe the significances of a phenomenon. The entire process is operational under the parameter of interpretative paradigm that can minimize illusion and share subjectivity under contextualization, authenticity and complexity of the investigation. (Soros, 1987)The basic advantages of qualitative measures are multifold. Firstly, it presents a completely realistic approach that the statistical analysis and numerical data used in research based on quantitative research cannot provide. Another advantage of qualitative measures is that it is more flexible in nature in terms of collected information interpretation, subsequent analysis and data collection. It also presents a holistic point of view of the investigation. Furthermore, this approach of research allows the subjects to be comfortable thus be more accurate as research is carried on in accordance to the subject's own terms. (Triandis, 1998)The best statistical method would be to interview long well formulated day-to-day working procedure at a specific and well-selected location. Throughout the procedure, it should be noticed whether there are specific variables within the testable population or not. These variables would be extremely important while evaluating the basic data in the final stages where the adjustments would be made to the formulated data in accordance to the observations. However, it is important to completely take into account the aspects of fundamental variables of an individual such as ethnicity, religious belief or positive support from the sales structure of the management and individuals. (Hymer, 2007)Personal networking is an important element in this context because with such mode it is possible to understand the pace and atmosphere of the team members and thus, it can be geared accordingly if needed without wasting time. For the purpose of study it is logical use these three methods.FACE-TO-FACE meetings - a personal mode of communication, which proves to be very effective when followed or accompanied by written communication.TELEPHONED meetings - very much akin to face-to-face meetings, it allows speech over long distance.E-MAILS - provide an instantaneous mode of written communication with a personal touch, around the globe. (Berkovitch, 2006)All these methods are extremely cost effective and as these would be easily accessible, it is logical to use these. Furthermore, it has been decided to use a small urban segment for analysis. Thus, it would be possible to arrange the entire participants of the test in a comparatively smaller locality. Thus, cost concerning traveling would also be negated. Sure, it was possible to include web based survey but it would not be cost effective and such huge amount of data is not needed for the survey. The procedure of success depends on the personal touch of the leader that motivates the members. Be it warm greetings in the morning or setting a well formulated short-termed goal, it is essential to know every details of the team and that is the only way to "manage up" the problems and succeed. Overall, apart from general items like printouts and other subsidiary cost the total expense is very low.In accordance to the basic test selected it could be stated that it could be possible that the outcome would be relatively logical in the sense that it would ultimately follow the trends of social facilitation theory in marketing and thus it would be agreeable with the statistical method and thus a well formulated marketing strategy can be constructed for the benefit of the interdepartmental process of communication system for the companies. However, it should be stated that there would be few independent variables in the context of the test that could not be explained by the statistical method statements. Here the ethical consideration of the potential customers or the ethnic background of the potential customers may not be a very relevant factor. Thus, there could be some flaws to the collection of the population but if these aspects are kept in mind then the shortcomings would easily be negotiated during the ultimate computations. As a result, the test would appear to be a full proofed measure that would be able to define and prove the fundamental aspects and statistical method applied. (Umpleby, 2006)As descriptions of statistical methods that will be used it could be stated that in order to isolate the results for this particular study, only a survey questionnaire done would have been utilized. These questionnaires would be delivered to potential customers and retailers along with the administrators of different companies. The results were divided into these same categories to ensure validity and reliability. General information about identifiers was utilized in order to ensure that there would be no bias. This information provided the researcher with a more clarified view of perceptions about the possibility and impact of market penetration and usage of the interdepartmental process of communication system in accordance to layer of employment-oriented formulation. (Weber, 1996)Project PlanThe interview section would certainly include the Administrators, Managers, marketing experts and Scholar, senior managers and obviously the potential employees and users of the interdepartmental process of communication system. The involvement of the administrators is a logical conclusion, as this is the main stronghold that would be able to render the impetus of the market with his valued opinions. It should be noted that the interviews of the organization managers would be very helpful as they are the personnel who directly understand the ground reality of the nature and feasibility of the game plans established in the market segments of the credit cards. Business, IT and HR scholars and experts are also important for the basic strategy development. These people would be able to provide the theoretical framework of entire project. Interviews of the senior administrators, Journalists and retailer are very important because not only these people are well respected and their words highly valued, these are the people who are able to influence the structure of the interdepartmental process of communication system market segment with their experience and insights. (Auster, 2006)To sum it up it should be mentioned that the methodology will involve client interviews, client's strategic customer interview, company records, secondary research through the Internet and university database, it will also use strategic analysis tools for development of the marketing plan. In this context, it should also be mentioned that the purpose of the project is formulated in a mutually beneficial way such that from an academic perspective there would be a huge gain in the context of valuable experience, and simultaneously add value by providing insights as well as a fresh & objective outlook on any matter relevant to the organization. (Rondinelli, 2000)Literature ReviewLiterature in the realm of research performed on the advances in production management and their use would be quite numerous and diverse in their content and methodology. In the different separate studies located, only few would have spanned a time beyond a decade. The majority of research pieces, which focus on the inclusion of theoretical and technological advances in the interdepartmental process of communication systems, would actually focus on the overall market segments through fundamental output levels. The fact that there are not very many advanced research items specifically directed toward the interdepartmental process of communication system related to reduction of costly errors and enhancing profit would be the main focus of this dissertation. (Andrad, 2004)For the purpose, specific journal articles and books would be taken into considerations. Among these, the most important texts would be as followed:Andrad, Mitchell and Stafford's New evidence and perspectives on Business communication. Auster & Sirower's The dynamics of communication waves: A three-stage conceptual framework with implications for practice.Berkovitch & Narayanan's Motives for communication: An empirical investigation.Hymer's The international operations of national firms: A study of direct investment.Ivancevich, Konopaske and Matteson's Organizational behavior and management. Kindleberger's American business abroad.Umpleby's Reflexivity in social systems: The theories of George Soros. Paper presented at annual meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences.Bibliography:Andrad, G., Mitchell, M., & Stafford, E. (2004). New evidence and perspectives on Business communication. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15(2), 103-120.Auster, E. R., & Sirower, M. L. (2006). The dynamics of communication waves: A three-stage conceptual framework with implications for practice. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 38(2), 2 16-244.Berkovitch, E., & Narayanan, M. P. (2006). Motives for communication: An empirical investigation. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 28(3), 347-362.Bowditch, J. L., & Buono, A. F. (2004). Aprimer on organizational behavior (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Dunning, J. H. (1999). The eclectic paradigm of international production: A restatement and some possible extensions. Journal of International Business Studies, 19(1), 1-31.Dunning, J. H. (2002a). Theories and paradigms of international business activity: The selected essays of John H. Dunning, Volume I (Vol. 1). Cheltenham, U.K. and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.Dunning, J. H. (2002b). Global capitalism, FDI, and competitiveness; The selected essays of John H. Dunning: Volume II (Vol. 2). Cheltenham, U.K. and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.Hymer, S. H. (2007). The international operations of national firms: A study of direct investment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Ivancevich, J. M., Konopaske, R., & Matteson, M. T. (2005). Organizational behavior and management (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J. (1977). The internationalization process of the firm: A model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments. Journal of International Business Studies, 8(1), 23-32.Kindleberger, C. P. (2006). American business abroad. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Mason, J. (2002). Qualitative researching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Rondinelli, D. A., & Black, S. S. (2000). Multinational strategic methodology. Academy of Management Executive, 14(4), 85-98.Schneider, S. C. (1989). Strategy formulation: The impact of national culture. Organization Studies 10(2), 149-168.Soros, G. (1987). The alchemy of finance: Reading the mind of the market. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Triandis, H. C. (1998). Vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism: Theory and research implications for international comparative management. In J. L. C. Cheng and R. B. Peterson (Eds.), Advances in international comparative management (Vol. 12, pp. 7-35). Stamford, CT: JAI Press.Umpleby, S. (2006, July). Reflexivity in social systems: The theories of George Soros. Paper presented at annual meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences, Sonoma, CA.Weber, Y., Shenkar, O., & Raveh, A. (1996). National and corporate cultural fit in mergers/acquisitions: An exploratory study. Management Science, 42(8), 1215-1227

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