Homework 3: Semantics & Pragmatics (40 points)
Due at the start of class Monday, February 25, 2019
1. Lexical Semantics. In what way are the following pairs of words related (e.g., synonymy)? In cases of hyponymy, indicate which word is the hyponym and which word is the hypernym. (10 points)
a. shallow deep
They both are related to the depth of something
b. mature ripe
They are both related to the age of
c. table furniture
A table is a type of furniture
d. single married
They are both related to the relationship status of a person
e. move run
Running is a type of movement
f. sofa couch
They are both types of seats.
g. punch touch
Punching someone is a way to technically touch someone
There are lots of other kinds of ‘-nyms’. Give two examples of each of the following:
h. Acronym: a word that is composed of the initials of several words, e.g. PET scan.
CPS – Child Protective Services
DOB – Date of Birth
i. Retronym: a word that would have once been redundant, but which changes in society have made non-redundant, e.g. silent movie was once redundant because all movies were silent.
Live Music – All music was once live
Railroad Car – All cars were train cars at one time
2. Thematic Roles. The following sentences each contain a verb, its noun phrase subject, and various objects. Identify the thematic role of each noun phrase. Note: make sure to give the whole noun phrase. (10 points)
Example: The boy took the books from the cupboard
Agent: the boy, Theme: the books, Source: the cupboard
a. Mary saw the ball in the house.
Agent: Mary, Theme: the ball, Source: the house
b. The children ran from the playground to the wading pool.
Theme: The children, Source: the playground, Goal: the wading pool
c. One of the men unlocked all the doors with a paper clip.
Agent: one of the men, Theme: the doors, Instrument: the paper clip
d. The sun melted the ice.
Agent: The sun, Patient: the ice
e. The farmer loaded hay onto the truck.
Agent: The farmer, Patient: hay, Source: the truck
f. The hay was loaded onto the truck by the man.
Patient: hay, Source: truck, Agent: the man
g. The aliens coveted our pets even though we gave them some frogs to enjoy.
Agent: The aliens, Patient: our pets, some frogs
3. Speech Acts. For each of the following contexts, identify the indirect speech act of “Do any of you have a watch?” Then, give the corresponding meaning of what is being said indirectly. (10 points)
a. A frantic-looking man runs up to a group of people standing at a bus top, checks the bus schedule, and then says hurriedly, “Do any of you have a watch?”
Indirect speech – Question
Meaning - Do you know the time?
b. A group of preteen girls is comparing jewelry. One girl says, “My jewelry is best, because I have the most.” Another says, “Nope. Mine is the best because it all matches.” This sort of thing goes on for a while. Finally, the last girl pipes up that she thinks she has the best jewelry. “Oh yeah? What makes your so special?” She replies, “Just look at my wrist! Do any of you have a watch?”
Indirect Speech – Assertion
The girl is asking this as she is showing her wrist to show the other girls that she has a watch
c. A mugger traps a group of people in a dark ally and waves a knife at them while screaming, “Do any of you have a watch?”
Indirect Speech – Threat
Because it is a mugger and he waved a knife, he is threatening them to give them their watch
d. Your instructor left her watch at home this morning, but she will need to monitor her time use in class. She says to her students, “Do any of you have a watch?”
Indirect Speech - Request
Your instructor would like to know if she can borrow a watch to monitor her time.
e. A woman goes to a masquerade ball and falls in love with one of her dance partners. Of course, she cannot see his face. She knows only that he wore a very ornate and easily recognizable wristwatch. Now, every time that she approaches a group of eligible-looking men, she begins her conversation with, “Do any of you have a watch?”
Indirect Speech – Assertion
She wants to ask this so the man may know it is her because they were both masked and she wants the man to know it is her because of his ornate watch.
f. A zookeeper is about to let a group of patrons try holding an exotic bird with a known tendency to peck at shiny objects. Before letting anybody hold her, the keeper says, “Do any of you have a watch?”
Indirect Speech – Question
The zoo keeper wants to know if anyone has a watch before anyone holds the bird so it won’t peck at it
g. A Martian has read all about Earth and is very interested in its time-telling devices. On its first trip to our planet, it exits its flying saucer and oozes up to the first group of people it sees. It says excitedly, “Do any of you have a watch?”
Indirect Speech – Request
The alien wants to know if anyone has a watch so it can see it and (potently) take it.
4. Gricean Maxims. A man stops his vehicle in the middle of the road to briefly ask you for directions to the post office. You know that there is one not far from your location. For each response, indicate the maxim that has been violated and briefly explain why. (10 points)
Man’s question: Where is the post office?
a. There are two in town, but the closest one is brand new. Down the road, about 50 yards past the second left. Also, you shouldn't stop your car in the middle of the road anymore.
Quantity, there is more information being told than needed for the question.
It could also be Manner if you are referring to the closest one being 50 miles when the description said there is one not far from your location.
b. I like your car.
Relevance, this has nothing to do with the question
c. I can only tell you that there is either one that way or one this way.
Manner, the answer is ambiguous
d. Not far.
Manner, the answer is ambiguous
e. There are no post offices in Pittsburgh. You have to go to Beaver to find a post office.
Quality, you lied because there is one
LING 1000 Homework 3: Semantics & Pragmatics