This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Is The Relationship Between Drugs And Crime A Causal One?

2322 words - 10 pages

Is the relationship between drugs and crime a causal one?Many leading criminologists, analysts and scholars have written on the subject of the relationship between drugs and crime, but few have categorically agreed on one answer. Drugs and crime are very often found together, however the problem comes when attempting to explain the relationship. Is the relationship causal? If so, which way around? Drug use causes crime, or crime causes drug use? Are there other ways in which they are related, for example a common cause which affects both? Or is it even possible that sometimes the relationship is purely coincidental? These are the questions that many writers and experts have attempted to ...view middle of the document...

Some have outlined slightly different approaches to analysing the relationship between crime and drug use; Goldstein (1985) outlined the three main ways drug use and crime are related: psychopharmacological, economic explanations and systematic relationships. These three models can be applied within both causal explanations already mentioned.The first model and often the most common link that is made, especially by the media, is the notion that drug use causes crime. Put simply, the large proportion of cases which fall into this category are 'drug users [who] seek illegal funds to pay for their drug use' (Bennet, T. 2005, p.11). This seems on the face of it to be the most natural connection between drug use and crime as many drug users behaviour changes dramatically after using drugs and once one has become addicted it can be the case the careers and other parts of their life can fall apart somewhat. However, there are many other ways that drug use can be the cause of crime. Psychopharmacological explanations tackle the chemical properties of drugs and look for explanations of how the body and mind can react to certain drugs (Goldstein, 1985). This kind of explanation often looks at the direct causes of drug consumption. This type of analysis has often been linked with violent crime specifically. White and Gorman (2000) outlined specifically several 'potential drug-organism interactions that might cause violent behaviour', namely: 'disinhibition, cognitive-perceptual distortions, attention-deficits, impairment of neuropathological functioning, or enhancement of psychopathological personality disorders'. It is widely accepted that this type of drug-crime link is brought about by the overpowering intoxication of the drug over internal restraints, therefore directly causing criminal behaviour. Next there are economic explanations for the drug use causes crime model, according to Goldstein (1985). In this instance it is more often than not, specifically habitual drug use such heroin or crack cocaine and the crimes in question are income-generating crime such as theft or burglary. This would probably be the first example most would think of when thinking about the question of the relationship between drugs and crime; heroin or crack addicts committing criminal offences to fund their addiction. Goldstein (1985) referred to this as the 'economic necessity' model. It is often also referred to as 'enslavement', that is the enslavement of the individual by the drug. Goode (1997) summed this view up:'Addicts and abusers become 'enslaved', unable to control their use of the drug; they spend so much money on it that they are unable to support their habit by working at a regular, legitimate job. Consequently, they must engage in crime; they have no choice in the matter.'There is often a huge level of dependency on the drug by the user and when such income-generating crimes are committed, it is out of necessity. This particular example shows a precise, direct,...

Other Essays On Is The Relationship Between Drugs And Crime A Causal One?

What is the difference between Mrs Morland and General Tilney?

383 words - 2 pages What is the difference between Mrs Morland and General Tilney?In chapters 30 and 31, Mrs Morland is shown to have a lot of common sense. This is shown in the quotes 'Wherever you are you should always be contented, but especially at home, because there you must spend the most of your time' and 'Then you are fretting about General Tilney, and that is very simple of you; for ten to one whether you ever see him again. You should never fret about

Thomas Becket -This is a basic overview of the life of Thomas Becket. It also tells about the power struggle between Becket and King Henry II

351 words - 2 pages The story of King Henry II and Thomas Becket tell us a tale of their friendship, which at times, becomes violent. King Henry and Thomas Becket were great friends, however, when Thomas Becket is appointed as the Archbishop of Canterbury, their lives are changed forever when their political differences are realized. Because Becket gave up his state title to be fully committed to the church, the King wanted revenge on Becket. The King felt that

A Relationship That Changes For The Better

856 words - 4 pages Wendy Wasserstein's play Tender Offer is a dialogue between a father, Paul and his daughter, Lisa. Paul is too wrapped up in his business and work and never takes the time to talk to his daughter and find out what is going on in her life. When the play begins, Lisa and Paul do not seem to have a relationship at all, but we find in the end that their relationship changes and will be better in the future. This dialogue allows Paul and Lisa to

Act II, Julius Caesar: Comparison Of Relationship Between Brutus And Portia And Caesar And Calpurnia

2522 words - 11 pages it comes to political matters. Interestingly also, to get their husbands' attention, they both plead on their knees and both husbands lift Portia and Calphurnia. The author cheats. However, Brutus lifts Portia to be his equal and Calphurnia is lifted, but she is still inferior to Caesar. I believe that the relationship between Portia and Brutus is one that will not be broken by death, but that of Calphurnia and Caesar is weak because they are not two spirits encompassing one body as Portia and Brutus's .

What Did Marx Mean By The Statement That 'Capital Is Not A Thing, But A Social Relation Between Persons'?

2416 words - 10 pages The idea of capital as a social relation can be seen to symbolize the relationship between those who own capital, and between those who must work in order to secure the income stream of capital - it is a relation of both property and power. Ideas of class conflict, alienation and exploitation are thus central to this approach. The aim of this essay is to explain the social relations of capital, and how these fit into the pattern of Marx's

Title:Aggressive and Passive. Compare characters in the Handmaid's Tail between Hamlet. Offred is aggressive while Ophelia is passive

537 words - 3 pages Aggressive and PassiveAggressive and Passive are two inverse attitudes to things, events or life. They cause different results. Offred and Ophelia are two women who have contrary destinies because of their different attitudes.Offred is a powerless woman in "the Handmaid's Tale". She's a handmaid of a commander in Gilead. She has no freedom. She belongs to him as a property. Her only duty is to have sex with the commander and give birth to a baby

Transcendentalism At A Glance, The Comparison Between Ralph Waldo Emerson's Writings, And A Cat Stevens Song

880 words - 4 pages which it is composed does not," one can understand Emerson's ideas quite clearly. He is writing about how a society does not last forever and if a person clings to a society he will collapse along with it. Emerson believes that people would be all right by themselves without a society's shelter. Individualism is a strong decision to make. Once somebody has made this choice, he should not look back and regret his decision.Looking back into the

"The Scarlet Letter" by Nathaniel Hawthorne How Hester Prynne has romantic characteristics, but is inevitably transcendental. This essay is also meant to be a short one page paper

370 words - 2 pages as both, she is, inevitably, a transcendentalist. Hester's decisions are based on her own intuitions, not that of the Puritans. The scarlet letter was "[...] taking her out of the ordinary relations with humanity, and enclosing her in a sphere by herself." Her confidence and use of the scarlet letter as a motivational tool separates her from the Puritan use of the scarlet letter as a means pf punishment. Hester is "[...] so helpful to the sick, so

This Is An Essay/Report On The Book "One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest". It Shows The General Runnings/Ideas Of The Book In A Structured Format

886 words - 4 pages patients are allowed to have an equal say in what goes on and they have a right to question the methods that the staff are using. It has been brought to our attention that the Staff and the Patients in the ward fear Ms Ratched and they do not feel comfortable standing up for their rights. This will be gone into more detail in the Patients Section of this report. The only visible form of communication between the patients and the Head Nurse is through

Alcoholism Is One Of The Concerns In United States

545 words - 3 pages , and social factors influence its development. Alcoholism is possible to cure but very difficult because it is the victim's choice to quit. Unfortunately due to the drugs dependency withdrawal symptoms that include nausea, sweating, shakiness, and anxiety could be so serious it could cause severe biological damage or even death. There are various treatment options that can help an alcoholic avoid drinking and regain a healthy life style. One of

Al Capone         Al Capone Is One Of The Most Famous

962 words - 4 pages Al Capone Al Capone is one of the most famous gangsters in the world. Born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1989, he was the fourth child out of nine children born to his parents who emigrated from Naples, Italy. Capone's trouble started in the sixth grade when he was expelled from school for retaliating and hitting his teacher back after she had hit him. Capone then joined the James Street Gang, a tough gang of young teenagers, run by Johnny

Similar Papers

The Nervous System: A Basic Summary Of The Nervous System And Some Little Peices On How It Is Affected By Disease And Drugs

1560 words - 7 pages , a protein called alpha-synuclein, is a familiar culprit: a fragment of it is a known constituent of Alzheimer's disease plaques. Because alpha-synuclein fragments are implicated in both Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, there may be duplicate pathogenic mechanisms between the two; therefore research into one disease may aid understanding of the other. As of yet there is no cure, but there are a number of other animals that have alpha-synuclein fragments in their natural make-up that play different roles in their body. The rat for instance, needs alpha-synuclein fragments to use their sense of smell.

The Relationship Between Diet And Social Behaviour And The Incidence Of Colds

2405 words - 10 pages transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from environmental surfaces to hands. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 59, 1579-85.AN APPLE A DAY. . .We are conducting a survey that looks at the relationship between what people eat and how often they catch a cold or the flu. Please take a few minutes to fill out this questionnaire as accurately as you can. All responses are anonymous.1.Are you Male or Female? (circle one)2.What is your age? (please fill in

Hort Book Report On Old Man And The Sea, Highlighting The Relationship Between Man And Nature

541 words - 3 pages as the marlin. However, the shovel-nosed sharks which are hateful and killers, are only worthy to feed on the marlin after it has been ruined and disfigured. This comes to show how magnificent the marlin was while intact, that only the noblest shark was worthy enough to feed on it.Santiago's story implies an interesting relationship between man and nature. Santiago's ordeal is a perfect example of man struggling against nature for survival

Crime And Punishment "Is There Not Such A Thing As Crime?" Disdusses Crime And Punishment, By Feodor Dostoevsky, Beloved, By Toni Morrison, And Utopia, By Sir Thomas More

1221 words - 5 pages society, they are bound to make rules and laws to follow andbide by; for laws are one of the cornerstones of a civilized society. If there were no laws,society would be uncivilized and in a chaotic state of anarchy. These laws are decided andadministered usually by elected officials who act as leaders in the society. From the inputof the citizens, they make laws to run the society by. And when a person breaks the law,that is defined as a 'crime