1. The role of the Freedmen’s Bureau in the adjustment from slavery to freedom.
· First large-scale federal welfare program in the United States (249)
· [pursued the passing of] Civil Rights Act in the spring of 1866, provided blacks with protection against the Black Codes and acts of violence. (239)
· Observe local judicial proceedings involving freed people and played a role in helping them to attain fundamental justice in court; organized freedmen’s courts and boards of arbitration (240) *ex. Sam Neal, freedman accusations against Tennessee planter
· Responsible for comprehensive and unified program of relief and rehabilitation for the newly emancipated [African American] (248) *after the Civil War, many ex-slaves struggled to find family as they got separated from them for years through sale or possibly from running away*
· Aided in furnishing supplies and medical services; establishing schools; supervising contracts between slaves and employers; managing confiscated or abandoned lands; [provided healthcare] to improve health of ex-slaves – reducing death rate and improving sanitary conditions (249)
· Fair adjudicators of labor problems; contained corruption and inefficiency (250)
· [Above all, the Bureau focused and prioritized education among the freemen] coordinating and working closely with Northern religious societies, philanthropic organizations and other groups committed [in providing education] to free people (250) [they helped raise funding to establish and maintain schools and colleges] ex. Howard University, named after Freedmen’s Bureau head General Oliver O. Howard
· Helped out in resettlement (252)
2. How the Black Codes were intended to keep freedmen as a subordinate laboring class.
· Contracts designed to lock in, control and compel black laborers to work under extremely oppressive conditions, thus reinforcing their subordinate position. (238)
· Vagrancy laws
· The courts in Maryland and North Carolina did not even require the consent of black parents to apprentice their children to white “guardians” (238)
· Disallowed black testimony
· Limit areas to own properties
· Fines for seditious speech or talk, insulting gestures, curfew, possession of firearms
· Denied rights to vote
· Republican leader Thaddeus Stevens, sterner policy toward the South, proposed that Congress assume authority over Reconstruction, Joint Committee on Reconstruction
3. Show what kinds of labor did freedmen do.
· Farm work
4. Give examples of contracts freedmen were forced to sign.
· Ex-slaves resisted signing their names to labor contracts in 1865 and 1866 due to fear of binding to a new form of enslavement (252)
5. Explain why some freedmen preferred sharecropping to working wages.
· Late 1860s, sharecropping emerged as a “compromise” as a flawed resolution to the economic tug of war between planters’ need for greater stability and control over agricultural production and the freed people’s need for less risk in economic...