Journal Entry #1
Today in class we discussed the social fact of Structural Functionalism, The structural-functional approach is a perspective in sociology that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. It asserts that our lives are guided by social structures, which are relatively stable patterns of social behavior. Social structures give shape to our lives – for example, in families, the community, and through religious organizations. And certain rituals, such as a handshake or complex religious ceremonies, give structure to our everyday lives. Each social structure has social functions, or consequences for the operation of society as a whole. Education, for example, has several important functions in a society, such as socialization, learning.
Thus, one of the key ideas in Structural Functionalism is that society is made-up of groups or institutions, which are cohesive, share common norms, and have a definitive culture Robert K Martin argued that functionalism is about the more static or concrete aspects of society, institutions like government or religions. However, any group large enough to be a social institution is included in Structural Functionalist thinking, from religious denominations to sports clubs and everything in between. Structural Functionalism asserts that the way society is organized is the most natural and efficient way for it to be organized.
The concept of structural functionalism has helped me understand how the structures are established in our communities. Relatively creates patterns that are based on social behaviors which is manifested through religion, family, education and rituals. Thus, learning about this has broadened my horizon on the small values that has been built to these types of functionalism. These type systems you noticed each day helps you make better judgments and actions to construct our very own society a better place.
Journal Entry #2
Today in class we discussed the social fact Social conflict theory, Social conflict Theory is a Marxist based social theory which argues that individuals and groups social classes within society interact on the basis of conflict rather than consensus. Through various forms of conflict, groups will tend to attain differing amounts of material and non-material resources the wealthy vs. the poor. More powerful groups will tend to use their power in order to retain power and exploit groups with less power.
Conflict theorists view conflict as an engine of change, since conflict produces contradictions which are sometimes resolved, creating new conflicts and contradictions in an ongoing dialectic In the classic example of historical materialism, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that all of human history is the result of conflict between classes which evolved over time in accordance with changes in society’s means of meeting its material needs, i.e. changes in society’s mode of production
The social conflict approach is a framework for building theory that sees as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change. Sociologists use the social conflict approach to study the ongoing conflict between dominant and more disadvantage groups. Using this perspective, we can easily study the relationship between the wealthy and the poor, whites in the relationship to people of color, and men in relation to women. A social conflict theorist would argue that people in positions of power will try to protect their privileges, while the disadvantaged struggle to gain more for themselves
The concepts of Social conflict has helped me understand how the social conflict theory sees life as a competition and focuses on the distribution of resources, power, and inequality. Conflict theorists view as arena of inequality that generates social conflict and social change. Karl marx is considered the father of social conflict theory. In doing so , he offered a theory of capitalism and class conflict between dominant and minority groups. Besides Marx, important contributors also include W.E.D Dubios and other thinkers
Journal Entry #3
Today in class we discussed the social fact Folkways, Folkways are the customers or convention of daily life. They are a type of social norm expectations for how we act. In sociology, folkway is generally discussed in contrast to mores because they are types of social norms though they vary in the degree to which they are enforced. Folkways are mildly enforced social expectations, while mores are strictly held beliefs about behaviors. Mores dictate right and wrong, while folkways distinguish between proper and rude behavior.
Folkways are followed to varying degrees, and it’s not terribly uncommon for them to be violated to be uncommon enough to be noticeable when they are not followed. The way we dress, speak, and even the way we face when we stand in an elevator. Each of these are regulated by folkways. Think about how you would react if a stranger was facing the wrong way away from the door in an elevator, particularly if the elevator had just the two of you in it. You probably wouldn’t say anything to the person to correct his behavior, but you would also notice the behavior as odd. The key is that they are mildly enforced.
The Concepts of Folkways has helped me understand Folkways are the customers or conventions of the everyday life. They are a type of social norm expectations for how we act. In sociology, folkways are generally discussed in contrast to mores because they are both types of social norms, though they vary in the degree to which they are enforced. Folkways are mildly enforced social expectations, while mores are strictly held beliefs about behaviors. While both fall under the umbrella of social norms and violations of mores are met with severe punishments from society. The reactions to violations of social norms, including folkways and mores.
Journal Entry #4
Today in class we discussed Social changes, Social change is an alteration in the social order of a society. Social change may include changes in nature, social institutions, social behaviors, or relations. May refer to the notion of social progress or sociocultural evolution the philosophical idea that society moves forward by evolutionary means. It may refer to a paradigmatic change in the socio-economic structure, for instance a shift away from feudalism and towards capitalism. Accordingly, it may also refer to social revolution, such as the Socialist revolution presented in Marxism or to other social movements, such as Women's suffrage or the Civil rights movement. Social change may be driven by cultural, religious, economic, scientific or technological forces.
Social changes happen all the time. Not every social change will be as dramatic as 9/11. One clear way we can see social change happening is through technology. It seems that even the newest technology is outdated a few days after you purchase it but not all changes occur as fast as technology, some are slower to adapt due to the social change emphasis. Social change is controversial even at times. One only must look at the various equal rights movements to see that social change, oftentimes, involves controversy. Even the various changes set into motion because of the 9/11 were a controversial in nature.
The Concepts of social change is the transformation of the culture and the social institutions over time. In this lesson, we learned that social change happens all the time, that social change is sometimes intentional but often unplanned, that social change can be controversial, and that some changes matter more than others. In addition, we learned that there are many sources of social changes, such as culture, ideas, inequality, conflict and demographic change.
Today in Class we discussed Cultural more, a cultural more is one of four types of cultural norms. A norm is a rule that a culture or society follows which guides how people behave and interact with each other. In sociology, there are four different types of norms: folkways, mores, taboos, and laws. A cultural more is a norm or rule that is guided by standards of morality within that culture, and has consequences if not followed. Although every culture does not share the same exact mores, indiscretions such as wearing a bikini to temple or church, lying, watching pornography, racial discrimination, and marital affairs are considered violations of mores in many societies and cultures.
For instance,. Another example involves discrimination and hatred against other races, which is considered a violation of the more of racial equality and tolerance in Western society. You might be wondering how mores are different from folkways and taboos. Well, while a folkway is a rule that distinguishes between what is right and rude, such as it being the right thing to do to chew food with your mouth closed or raise your hand in class instead of shouting out, a more is a more serious cultural standard of behavior that distinguishes between what is wrong/immoral and right/moral.
The concepts of cultural more help me understand a cultural more is a norm, or rule, that is guided by standards of morality within that culture, and has consequences if not followed. It is one of four types of norms, or rules that a culture or society follow, which guides how people behave and interact with each other. The other three norms are folkways, taboos, and laws. A folkway is a rule that distinguishes between what is right and rude. A taboo is a norm that is a serious offense that always merits legal consequences. Mores are more serious than folkways and typically carry less severe consequences than taboos. Mores distinguish what is right from what is wrong. Mores are sometimes rooted in religious doctrines. If a more doesn't have a religious origin, it can be established from an innate human consciousness or sense of what is right versus what is wrong. Finally, a more can be established due to practical reasons such as safety. Some examples of violations of mores are cohabitation with a romantic partner before marriage, lying, cheating on a test, wearing inappropriate dress to a religious service, watching pornography, or racial discrimination.
Journal Entry #6
Today in class we discussed symbolic interaction, Symbolic interactionism is a sociological theory that develops from practical considerations and alludes to people's particular utilization of dialect to make images, normal implications, for deduction and correspondence with others. In other words, it is a frame of reference to better understand how individuals interact with one another to create symbolic worlds, and in return, how these worlds shapes individual behaviors. Symbolic interactionism comes from a sociological perspective which developed around the middle of the twentieth century and that continues to be influential in some areas of the discipline. It is particularly important in microsociology and social psychology. It is derived from the American philosophy of pragmatism and particularly from the work of George Herbert Mead, as a pragmatic method to interpret social interactions.
This theoretical perspective looks at how people navigate their interactions with others and assign meanings based on their interpretation of those interactions. As this theory focuses on the behavior of individuals as opposed to the collective behavior of people as a group (a macro-level approach to social theory), symbolic interactionism is a micro-level sociological theory. The modern-day theoretical concept of symbolic interactionism is the culmination of contributions in the early 1900s from three major sociological theorists: Herbert Blumer, George Herbert Mead, and Charles Horton Cooley. In the following sections, we'll discuss each of these theorists' roles in the development of the theory.
The Concepts symbolic interaction help understand symbolic interaction theory (also known as symbolic interactionism), a theory regarding social interaction and behavior that explains how people navigate their interactions with others and assign meanings based on their interpretation of those interactions. We learned that this is a micro-level theory because it deals with individuals and their relations to groups. We discussed George Herbert Mead's concept of self as a dynamic organism that is organized into two phases which reiterates how our definition of self is constructed based on what we think others think of us. Lastly, we discussed Herbert Bulmer’s contribution to symbolic interactionism, which is a culmination of these two elements and adds a clarification of how individuals assign meaning to behavior based on interactions with others.