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La Higuera The Spanish Civil War In Literature

3452 words - 14 pages

1. EinleitungDer spanische Bürgerkrieg […] hat das Bewusstsein der nachfolgenden Generationen in großem Maße beeinflusst.[1: Capdepon, 1.]In Deutschland hat sich seit einigen Jahrzehnten eine Erinnerungskultur etabliert, die im Ausland oft als vorbildlich anerkannt wird. In Spanien ist der Aufarbeitungsprozess des Bürgerkriegs und der darauf folgenden franquistischen Diktatur noch nicht soweit fortgeschritten. Nach Francos Tod gab es keinen radikalen Bruch mit dem Regime. Satt dessen wurde die Vergangenheit ausgeblendet, die Phase des Übergangs wurde sowohl von den Repräsentanten des alten Regimes als auch von den unter Franco unterdrückten ...view middle of the document...

Nach dem Ende der Franco-Diktatur war die Literatur sehr von den Grenzen zwischen den beiden Gruppen geprägt, die eigene wurde aufgewertet, während der frühere Feind abgewertet wurde. Im Bürgerkriegsroman der Gegenwart dagegen verschwimmen diese Grenzen viel stärker, Erinnern und Vergessen wird dafür in den Fokus gerückt.[2: Cf. Ibid. 1f.][3: Cf. Ibid.2.] 2. Das theoretische Konzept von ErinnerungWenn der Mensch sich an etwas erinnert, hat das zunächst immer eine sehr subjektive Komponente, da das Erleben und die darauf folgende Interpretation individuell aufgefasst und gedeutet werden. Die Menge an individuellen, kommunikativen Erinnerungen kann in kulturelle Erinnerungen umgewandelt werden. Jede Gesellschaft hat allerdings andere kulturelle Erinnerungen. Die Festlegung was als relevant für eine Gesellschaft gilt, wird von Instanzen, wie der Politik, der Kirche oder den Medien entschieden, indem sie bestimmte Erinnerungen in den Vordergrund rücken.Lange war das "Interesse an der Vergangenheit kein "historisches", sondern ein zugleich umfassendes und konkretes Interesse an Legitimation, Rechtfertigung, Versöhnung, Veränderung, usw." Dieses konkrete Interesse verbindet die Erinnerung automatisch auch mit der Deutungshoheit über Ereignisse und Epochen. Derjenige, der die Deutungshoheit erlangt, hat die Macht Erinnerungen für sich zu nutzen und dadurch beispielsweise eine Herrschaft zu legitimieren. Zudem wollen Herrscher auch von zukünftigen Generationen erinnert werden und bauen sich mit Hilfe des Erinnerns ihr eigenes Denkmal. Die Erinnerung wird hier sowohl retrospektiv, als auch prospektiv genutzt. Nicht nur die Erinnerung, auch das Vergessen kann eine Allianz mit der Herrschaft bilden. Ereignisse lassen sich nicht ungeschehen machen, aber durch das Vergessen lässt sich verhindern, dass sie in der Zukunft eine Bedeutung bekommen und zur Geschichte werden. Erinnerung und Vergessen übernehmen folglich immer eine Funktion und geschehen nicht ihrer selbst wegen. Während Erinnerung im Sinne eines Herrschers die Macht legitimieren und festigen soll, kann sie aus der Perspektive der Unterdrückten die gegenteilige Funktion übernehmen und einen Widerstand formieren, der sich bis hin zu einer Revolution ausweiten kann. [4: Jan Assmann, 67.][5: Ibid, 76.][6: Ibid, 84f.]Aleida Assmann unterscheidet im Umgang mit einer traumatischen Vergangenheit vier verschiedenen Funktionen. Eine mögliche Reaktion auf traumatische Ereignisse kann das Vergessen sein, das benutzt wird, um "einen neuen Anfang zu setzten und eine in sich zerrissenen Gesellschaft wieder zusammenwachsen zu lassen."[7: Aleida Assmann, 2009, 43.]Natürlich kann der Staat auf die persönliche Erinnerung seiner Bürger keinen Einfluss nehmen; es kann aber sehr wohl bei Strafe verboten werden, im öffentlichen Diskurs an alte Wunden zu rühren, um mit der Erneuerung vom alten...

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