This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Labour Economics Essay

1516 words - 7 pages

Labour EconomicsThe current problems between Qantas and the ACTU over employment of casual labour highlight substantial changes in the composition of the Australian workforce over the past few decades and some of the resistance to it. Gone is the traditional ' cradle to grave' career. These changes have come about for a number of reasons. New technology, micro and macro economic reforms, eg. tariff reform, industrial relations reforms, standards and quality controls have all brought about significant change. Other factors influencing this process, has been the adoption of management strategies that emphasise flexibility, requiring more use of part time and casual labour.'Full time work is ...view middle of the document...

(Healey, 1999, p.2)Micro economic reforms, such as, tariff reductions, floating the Australian dollar, deregulation of key industries and the liberalising of foreign investment have also led to a change in employment opportunities away from traditional and sometimes inefficient industrial or manufacturing work. These changes in policy have exposed our economy to direct competition with global markets, making less efficient industries change their ways or disappear. These changes often require more flexibility than full time permanent employment could offer. The government with help of the unions have attempted to address some of these problems with greater use of enterprise bargaining and other workplace reforms but these are largely applicable to medium to large business and not small business. 'The combined effect of these influences has resulted in 27 percent or 2.5 million workers being employed on a casual basis. In comparison to 1984 when the ratio was 16 percent of all workers.' ( is a business strategy that started in the 1980's and continued through the 1990's. The original rationale for downsizing or redundancies was part of a streamlining process brought about by the lowering of tariffs and protection of our economy, requiring greater efficiency for survival. Combined with weak economic performance during the late 1980's and early 1990's, this method was seen as a way of maintaining or increasing company profits.Management soon realised that some of the full time positions were no longer required even in times of economic expansion and instead relied on outsourcing to hire companies and consultants to fill any shortfall in labour. Outsourcing, once having established a presence in the 1980's, began to look increasingly as a better alternative to permanent positions giving management more labour options with less overheads required to maintain staff.Small business have always had problems with matching its long operating hours with the requirement to provide full time employment with penalty rates and the various leave benefits. Anti dismissal provisions in the labour awards, have made full time or permanent part time employment unattractive to most small business operators. Causal employment is therefore regarded as the most efficient use of labour in this sector with the ability to easily hire, fire and adjust working hours to suit the business. It is this flexibility that makes casual employment so attractive to employers.Female participation in the labour market has had the greatest effect on changes to the job market. ' Women as a group of labour participants have risen from 38 percent in 1965 to 54 percent in 2002'.(ACTU) The female participation rate in the job market started to increase significantly during the early 1980's as high interest rates and low real wages took their toll on household incomes. Women constantly try to balance economic needs with family needs and self-development leading to...

Other Essays On Labour Economics

The Effects Of Globalisation On The Australian Business Culture

2809 words - 12 pages state differences debate has sparked controversy with many opponents of the view that, the multinational corporations are after a global playing field without rules and access to unregulated labour, consumer markets, and natural resources without having to operate under the restrictions of national laws (Caldicott, 2000). Such poignant views illustrate the contentious nature of the debate. There will always be resistance to globalisation, and an

Management, People & Organizations Essay

4215 words - 17 pages a stable environment that is hard to find in these modern days.It is visible that Quinlan's culture was bureaucratic. In particular Quinlan had:a) Properly defined rules and procedures to function in a predictable and routine mannerb) Roles were clearly defined and labour was divided based on these rolesc) A hierarchical chain of commandd) Clear separation of ownership and controlCulture and organisation successDaft, Management, 2003, chapter 3

Explain The Distinction Between Transaction Costs And Other Costs That Occur In Economic Systems

2839 words - 12 pages firms.Reference:Perman,R and Scouller, J. 1999 Business Economics, Oxford University PressArrow,K.J. 1983 The organization of Economic Activity: Issues Pertinent to the choice of Market of Versus Non market AllocationFurubon, Eirik G and Rudolf Richer 1997 Institutions and economy theoryMasten, S.E.1982 Transaction Costs, Institutional choice and the organization of ProductionGhertman,M. 1998 Measuring Macro-Economic Transaction Costs: A

Human Resource Management VS Organisational Change

5213 words - 21 pages models that have attempted to describe the determinants of HR practices.2.2 Theories of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM)SHRM is built around several theories such as the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm and the behavioural approach which describe the determinants of HR practices.RBV originates from organizational economics and strategic management literature (Wright and McMahan, 1992). It focuses on the firm's internal resources; for

"Occupational Safety And Hazards: Costs And Benefits"

5217 words - 21 pages the employee after the work is completed;•The effort the worker has to expand in his work also should be defined. Accordingly, it is not allowed to demand of the worker that is beyond his capacity; (forced labour is not allowed)•It is permissible to be contracted to undertake every lawful (halal) form of work. So the employee should not be hired for doing something, which is prohibited;•The work and the working environment should

Macroeconomic Review Of Japan

9970 words - 40 pages , while population ageing is reducing the size of the workforce.In sum, the positive developments during the current expansion do not reduce the urgency of a broad programme combining macroeconomic and structural policies.DeflationIn economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level, or a rise in the purchasing power of money with respect to a large class of consumption goods or services. Inflation is the opposite of deflation.The

Character In "The Yellow Wallpaper" By Charlotte Perkins Gilman

1587 words - 7 pages The short story 'The Yellow Wall-Paper' written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a cry for freedom. This story is about a woman who fights for her right to express what she feels, and fights for her right to do what she wants to do. The narrator in this short story is a woman whose husband loves her very much, but oppresses her to the point where she cannot take it anymore. This story revolves around the main character, her oppressed life, and her

Edgar Allen Poe's View Of Death In "The Fall Of The House Of Usher"

1836 words - 8 pages Edgar Allen Poe's Symbolism of Death in 'The Fall of the House of Usher'Death is defined as, 'The termination or extinction of something' (American Heritage Dictionary). Edgar Allen Poe uses this description in 'The Fall of the House of Usher' in different ways. Poe's intention when writing 'The Fall of the House of Usher' was not to present a moral, lesson, or truth to the reader; he was simply trying to bring forth a sense of terror to the

"Slaughterhouse Five" By Vonnegut

2264 words - 10 pages When one begins to analyze a military novel it is important to first look at the historical context in which the book was written. On the nights of February 13-14 in 1944 the city of Dresden, Germany was subjected to one of the worst air attacks in the history of man. By the end of the bombing 135,000 to 250,000 people had been killed by the combined forces of the United States and the United Kingdom. Dresden was different then Berlin or many of

Psychoanalysis And Freud

2420 words - 10 pages Psychoanalysis is a system of psychology originated by the Viennese physician Sigmund FREUD in the 1890's and then further developed by himself, his students, and other followers. It consists of three kinds of related activities: (1) a method for research into the human mind, especially inner experiences such as thoughts, feelings, emotions, fantasies, and dreams; (2) a systematic accumulation of a body of knowledge about the mind; and (3) a

Comparative Essay. "Heart Of Darkness" By Joseph Conrad And William Golding's "Lord Of The Flies"

2729 words - 11 pages It can be said that a certain degree of darkness lies within every person, but this darkness will not surface unless given the correct environment. The darkness, however, can emerge and ultimately destroy the person if not checked by reason. If one's inner darkness does surface, the victim then is given the opportunity to reach a point in personal growth, and to gain a sense of self-knowledge from it. That is, when one's darkness appears, one

Similar Papers

Foreign Direct Investment In China And Worldwide

3902 words - 16 pages China is mainly for the potential market and labour abundance but not natural resources."The nature of labour in China has also been a fundamental determinant of the flow of FDI. The level of labour quality, such as the literacy of a population, or the number of engineers, scientists and technicians per 1000 employees (Braunerhjelm and Svensson 1996 cited in Sun et al, 2002: 89) affects the suitability of the host location to modern technology

Mercantilist Economic Theory And Policy, Interconnected With Wider Political Issues

1016 words - 5 pages . This new form of economicthought (Mercantilism) would focus on economics as statecraft and the promotion ofnational wealth and power.This new economic theory required the nation to accept that the economy wouldnow, out of necessity be 'disembedded' from the society. Clearly the Mercantilistapproach had a definite profit and expansionist basis; in contrast, the insular embeddedapproach would be more consistent with a stable, non expansionary somewhat

The Industrial Revolution In Great Britain

2034 words - 9 pages was the most vital development of the industrial revolution and the improved engine developed by James Watt in 1769 marked the peak of this development. The revolution of Britain especially in areas of agriculture, mining industries and railroad contributed greatly towards changing the livelihoods of the people and their living standards as well.The previously manual labour and the draft-animal-based economy was transformed to machine-based

The Second Machine Age Of Automated Robots

2822 words - 12 pages prediction of the future, the concept that everyone must work in order to justify their living may be reconsidered. Scientists have predicted statistically that the innovation created by one in ten thousand can provide for the rest. It is suggested that if society was able to let go of the notion that we must have infinite growth and that of labour for income, then we would be better able to utilise the limited resources we have. This management could be