Logic Test Review
1. What are the two main branches of logic?
Deduction: Involves drawing a specific conclusion from a general statement or premise, going from the big picture to the small picture.
Example of Deduction: The statement that “all birds have beaks” would lead me to deduce that if I am a bird, I must have a beak.
Induction: Starts with observing a particular “thing” and drawing a generalization from that, going from the little picture to the big.
Example of Induction: If you played soccer two days ago and that evening had a sore knee, AND if you played soccer yesterday and last night you had a sore knee AND if you play soccer today and tonight you have a sore knee, you would most likely assume through induction that if you play soccer, you will have a sore knee later that same day.
2. Explain Aristotle’s three laws of thought-must be able to define it and give examples?
The Law of Non-Contradiction states that something cannot be said both to be and not to be at the same time and in the same respect. For example, if the statement “Tom exists” is true, it cannot be false. Tom cannot exist and not exist at the same time.
The Law of Excluded Middle says that something must either be or not be. For example, the statement “Sasha exists” must be either true or false. There is no third, or middle, possibility. Either Sasha exists, or she does not exist.
The Law of Identity says that something is what it is. For example, Tom is Tom, and Sasha is Sasha. To say “Tom is Sasha” is untrue.
3. What is the difference between Fuzzy Logic and Boolean Logic?
Fuzzy Logic: Logic that operates in ‘shades’ of true or false, rather than absolutes. It is often used in computer sciences to make decisions based on percentages and educated calculations. It is useful in artificial intelligence research as technology can begin to function more like a human.
Boolean Logic: Known as Boolean logic or symbolic logic, Boole’s system was a form of algebra in which all values are reduced to either true or false. This system is now used in many computer applications.
4. How does Fuzzy Logic contribute to the way computers think?
It is often used in computer sciences to make decisions based on percentages and educated calculations.
5. What is the effect of Fuzzy Logic on the evolution of products, social media and AI?
It is useful in artificial intelligence research as technology can begin to function more like a human. It helps social media show the content that the person wants instead of showing them other videos, this is what Instagram has been doing.
6. Know the rules governing valid and invalid deductive syllogisms
Rule 1: Exactly three categorical terms
To be valid, a syllogism must have exactly three categorical terms, and their sense mustn't vary over the course of the syllogism. A fallacy of equivocation occurs when a term is used in a different way within the course of an argument. So, for example
All dogs like meat
Ralph likes meat
Therefore, Ralph is a ...