Aman Bindra 8Sci4
Roman Empire (Around the Iron Age):
The Roman Empire was one of the largest during the time it lasted. However, how did this empire conquer countless countries in a short amount of time? One of the main reasons was the weapons the Romans used. The Gladius was one of these crucial tools to their success. This weapon's blade was made out of steel alloy, a mixture composing of iron and carbon at isn't chemically bonded. The Romans made the steel alloy by heating and hammering the iron repetitively. The iron would be in contact with charcoal. This process caused the casing of metal to be converted into steel. The steel Gladius was unmatched in its strength, durability and malleability, making it the ideal metal to use in weapons. The hilt of the Gladius is made out of 3 parts: guard, grip and pommel. The guard and pommel were wood and the grip was made out of bone, but all three could be bone and/or ivory. The guard has a thin brass plate set into its face. Like most other swords, the tang ran through all 3 pieces, and was peened over a washer or small brass finial.
A key tool to the Romans was the tool of trade, coins. Unlike the “gold coins” in the Australian currency, Romans made coins that were near 24 karat gold, approximately 99% gold. This coin was known as the Aureus. The coin weighed around 8 grams, similar to the weight of a $1 coin. It had the face of Septimius Severus engraved into it. The Aureus was later replaced by the solidus, a replica that was weighed 4.5 grams. The coin was originally 23 karat gold, approximately 95%. It replaced the Aureus since it was thinner, lighter and had a larger surface area.
Like all cultures, the Romans had their own musical instruments. One of the most popular instruments was the tuba. The Roman tuba was a long, straight horn, about 1.2m in length. It was made of bronze and had a detachable bone mouthpiece. Bronze alloy was made by heating the metals, tin and copper, and mixing them together. As the two metals melted, they combined to form liquid bronze. The Romans used the tuba to make bugle calls to signal commands like 'charge', 'retreat' and changing of guard in battles.
Sculptures were a trait to the Roman Culture. They borrowed much of their style from the Greeks, particularly their interest in realism. The Romans sometimes worked in bronze alloy. In the composition of the metals, 88% was copper and 12% was tin. However, the Romans very frequently created their statues out of marble. Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallised carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
Utensils are another key part to any Empire. Romans used lead in their utensils, cooking pots, jewelry, pipes and cosmetics. However, this meant the Romans had some problems with lead poisoning. Too much lead can result in metabolic disorder. Lead interferes with normal enzymes reactions with the human body. It can mimic other metals that are essential to biological functioning.