Microorganism Profile Assignment
February 10, 2019
1. Description of the Microorganism:
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a highly complex RNA virus of the genus Lentivirus within the Retroviridae family. The virus is spherical that contains a core that contains two strands of genomic RNA and is surrounded by a lipid envelope. The lipid envelope is derived from the host plasma membrane. HIV-2 is less prevalent and less pathogenic type and is found primarily in western Africa, (Engelkirk, 2015). HIV, is the virus that causes AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) and can be transmitted during sexual intercourse; while sharing syringes; or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding. This virus was t identified in 1981, HIV is the cause of one of humanity’s deadliest and most persistent epidemics, (DHHR, 2018).
The main focus of this paper will be on HIV – 1. The tests used to confirm diagnosis are:
· the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test; blood sample is taken and the serum are put on a plate containing antigens for HIV. If the patient is infected with HIV, his blood will contain antibodies that will attach to the antigens on the plate. The sample is then washed with a solution that will wash other particles away isolating the antigen with the patient’s antibodies attached to it. This is treated with an enzyme that attaches to the antibodies of the antigens and a chemical reaction takes place which results in color change. This color change shows a positive result of HIV this is visualized using a transmission electron microscope.
· If ELISA test is positive, then a Western blot test is performed. To perform this test, you separate your proteins on a gel, and then you detect your protein with an antibody and a second antibody coupled to an enzyme. It's less sensitive than ELISA but you see that your detection is specific because you see only one band.
· You can also determine if someone is infected with HIV by using an immunofluorescence microscopy. This is used to localize the protein inside the cell by use of fluorophores to visualize the location of bound antibodies.
· The HIV-1 core antigen (p24) test detects circulating viral antigen which may be found prior to the development of antibodies; this test is done with an Electron microscope, (Quest, 2016).
· Saliva tests (home kits) This test will detect HIV antibodies but it is HIV antibodies don't accumulate in saliva at the same speed or levels as in blood. Positive results are confirmed with a blood tes,t (Parker, Schneegurt, Thi Tu, Forster, & Lister, Microbiology, 2018).
2. Virulence Factors: How do they affect the host?
The virus is transmitted to a person through sexual contact, the sharing of needles with an infected individual, from mother to baby during birth or through breast milk. Once a patient is infected, the virus will soon encounter its target cells; which are T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. When the HIV virus...