Mkvemdkcmasmdkwmskwm Makmdwkmk Kososososm Spjofmwkan Fwt

4982 words - 20 pages

2
14 Chapter 1
West African Civilizations
Like Africa as a whole, West Africa is physically, ethnically, and culturally
diverse. Much of West Africa south of the Sahara Desert falls within the
great savannah that spans the continent from east to west. West and
south of the savannah, however, in Senegambia (modern Senegal and
Gambia), stretching along the southwestern coast of West Africa, and in
the lands located along the coast of the Gulf of Guinea, there are exten-
sive forests. These two environments—savannah and forest—were home
to a great variety of cultures and languages. Patterns of settlement in the
region ranged from isolated homesteads and hamlets through villages
and towns to cities.
West Africans began cultivating crops and tending domesticated ani-
mals between 1000 BCE and 200 CE. Those who lived on the savannah usu-
ally adopted settled village life well before those who lived in the forests.
The early farmers produced millet, rice, and sorghum while tending herds
of cattle and goats. By 500 BCE, beginning with the Nok people of the for-
est region, some West Africans were producing iron tools and weapons.
From early times, the peoples of West Africa traded among them-
selves and with the peoples who lived across the Sahara Desert in North
Africa. This extensive trade became an essential part of the region’s
economy and formed the basis for the three great western Sudanese
empires that successively dominated the region from before 800 CE to
the beginnings of the modern era.
Ancient Ghana
The first known kingdom in the western Sudan was Ghana (see Map
1–3). Founded by the Soninke people in the area north of the modern
republic of Ghana, its origins are unclear. Its name comes from the
Soninke word for king.
Ghana’s kings were known in Europe and southwest Asia as the rich-
est of monarchs, and the source of their wealth was trade. The key to this
trade was the Asian camel, which was introduced into Africa during the
first century CE. With its ability to endure long journeys on small amounts
of water, the camel dramatically increased trade across the Sahara
between the western Sudan and the coastal regions of North Africa.
Section2
West Africa
G U I D E T O R E A D I N G
Why is West Africa significant
for African-American history?
How and why was Timbuktu a
major center of trade and
cultural exchange?
What impact did Islam have on
West Africa?
What did the people of Central
Africa have in common with
those of the Guinea Coast?
K E Y T E R M S
Berbers, p. 15
forest region, p. 19
Guide to Reading/Key Terms
For answer, see the Teacher’s Resource Manual.
Living Words Audio Clips
Track 1 Ghana: Ewe-Atsiagbekor
Recommended Reading
Robert W. July. A History of the African People,
5th ed. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1998.
A comprehensive and current social history
with good coverage of West Africa and West
African women.
Teaching Notes
The Soninke succeeded in dominating their
neighbors and forging an empire through
constant warfare...

Other Essays On mkvemdkcmasmdkwmskwm makmdwkmk kososososm - Spjofmwkan - FWT

Comparative Essay. "Heart Of Darkness" By Joseph Conrad And William Golding's "Lord Of The Flies"

2729 words - 11 pages It can be said that a certain degree of darkness lies within every person, but this darkness will not surface unless given the correct environment. The darkness, however, can emerge and ultimately destroy the person if not checked by reason. If one's inner darkness does surface, the victim then is given the opportunity to reach a point in personal growth, and to gain a sense of self-knowledge from it. That is, when one's darkness appears, one

This Is An Essay On The Woman In The Odyssey And Their Influences On His Travels

993 words - 4 pages The Odyssey is an epic about a Greek warrior in the Trojan War whose wanderings around his known world and his perilous encounters are the basis of the story. Odysseus' absence from his home is prolonged by the influences of the women whom he encounters.In this epic, several female characters had a profound effect on the plot. They wielded their influence through typically feminine skills and attributes: seduction, supernatural powers

Title:Aggressive and Passive. Compare characters in the Handmaid's Tail between Hamlet. Offred is aggressive while Ophelia is passive

537 words - 3 pages Aggressive and PassiveAggressive and Passive are two inverse attitudes to things, events or life. They cause different results. Offred and Ophelia are two women who have contrary destinies because of their different attitudes.Offred is a powerless woman in "the Handmaid's Tale". She's a handmaid of a commander in Gilead. She has no freedom. She belongs to him as a property. Her only duty is to have sex with the commander and give birth to a baby

Black Boy vs Grapes of Wrath

444 words - 2 pages Even though the books of Black Boy and Grapes of Wrath gave a vivid picture of the past American life to the readers regarding the socio-economic bigotry. Both books are similar in focusing the social and economic discrimination in the family setting. On Grapes of Wrath the California prejudice against the immigrants. Prejudice was a strong word, which leaves a bitter taste in the mouth. It is the prejudice against the migrant workers by the

Leprosy ; includes what bacteria it is caused by, the orgin of the disease, how many people are affected by it in the united states and in alaska during 1999 and 2000, and more. 3 pages long

524 words - 3 pages Leprosy is very dangerous for your personal health. It can make you skin fall off. Leprosy slowly eats away at you body. It is deadly to all genders, all ages, all sizes and all races.Another name for leprosy is Hansen's Disease. Leprosy is caused by the organism mycobacterium leprae. The pathogen that carries it is bacteria. Throughout the years people have suspected that inhaling and touching the bacteria could spread leprosy.Symptoms of

Reality Vs. Appearance - Hamlet

978 words - 4 pages In the play "Hamlet," Shakespeare's characters are confronted with the timeless question: How can one determine what is actually true from what only seems to be true? Throughout the play, the theme of appearance versus reality is constant. This theme is played out from the beginning, with Claudius' attempt to conceal his secret intentions; Gertrude and Ophelia masking their own truths, and finally Hamlet, who assumes the role of a madman in order

My favorite place

320 words - 2 pages Among the places where I have traveled, I especially like Fort Lauderdale very much. It fills me with beautiful memories. It reminds me of the days when I lived in Vietnam where I was born, especially the coconut trees, the hot and humid weather are like Vietnam. Fort Lauderdale has almost all the tropical fruits like jack fruit, durian, and longan. All these fruits are not grown in California.I usually come to Fort Lauderdale for a vacation. I

Mockery And Superiority In Canzone: Supported By Areopagitica Examines John Milton's Use Of Mockery And Superiority In The Poem Canzone; Supported By Areopagitica

1210 words - 5 pages PAGE PAGE 4 Zimmer Rachel ZimmerProf. GraffMilton: ENGL 420June 10, 2002Mockery and Superiority in Canzone:Supported by AreopagiticaMockery, as well as a sense of pride and/or superiority comes out in many of Milton's works and he exemplifies this by writing in ways that seems to humble himself, charm the subject of the poem, and yet scoff at him/her at the same time as well as prove his high intellect. Milton's often-circular logic exemplifies

Trichotillomania-Physcology 101 paper. Paper on an OCD diagnosis. This paper was written as term paper

562 words - 3 pages TrichotillomaniaTrichotillomania is a term coined by a French dermatologist in 1889 to describe the compulsive or irresistible urge that he saw in patients to pluck their hair out. The word trichotillomania is a Greek work meaning hair to pull, pluck, mania, frenzy, and madness. This is somewhat misleading as trichotillomania is referred to in psychiatry as an impulse disorder not a "madness" at all.Impulse control disorders are characterized by

Romeo And Juliet's Love Is Not Real Love, But Only An Idea Of The Real Aspect Of True Love

1161 words - 5 pages Romeo and Juliet is an awesome play written by William Shakespeare in the 15th century. This play is based upon two lovers, Romeo and Juliet, who in just a short period of three days meet, marry, make love, and die. Romeo is a Montague and Juliet is a Capulet. These two families have gone by many generations with hate towards one-another. Neither family can forgive and forget whatever argument had been started many decades ago. Although the two

Jean Rhys Novel

289 words - 2 pages In Jean Rhys's compelling novel about racial tension amidst confusion and anxiety, the author addresses this subtext in such a way as to portray Antoinette as a product of an intolerant society. While more of an underlying theme, the character's racial inner struggles in Wide Sargasso Sea represent a significance to the story's overall flavor and intensity, being that Antoinette is torn the entire time between calling herself black or white. Who

Similar Papers

Character In "The Yellow Wallpaper" By Charlotte Perkins Gilman

1587 words - 7 pages The short story 'The Yellow Wall-Paper' written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a cry for freedom. This story is about a woman who fights for her right to express what she feels, and fights for her right to do what she wants to do. The narrator in this short story is a woman whose husband loves her very much, but oppresses her to the point where she cannot take it anymore. This story revolves around the main character, her oppressed life, and her

Edgar Allen Poe's View Of Death In "The Fall Of The House Of Usher"

1836 words - 8 pages Edgar Allen Poe's Symbolism of Death in 'The Fall of the House of Usher'Death is defined as, 'The termination or extinction of something' (American Heritage Dictionary). Edgar Allen Poe uses this description in 'The Fall of the House of Usher' in different ways. Poe's intention when writing 'The Fall of the House of Usher' was not to present a moral, lesson, or truth to the reader; he was simply trying to bring forth a sense of terror to the

"Slaughterhouse Five" By Vonnegut Essay

2264 words - 10 pages When one begins to analyze a military novel it is important to first look at the historical context in which the book was written. On the nights of February 13-14 in 1944 the city of Dresden, Germany was subjected to one of the worst air attacks in the history of man. By the end of the bombing 135,000 to 250,000 people had been killed by the combined forces of the United States and the United Kingdom. Dresden was different then Berlin or many of

Psychoanalysis And Freud

2420 words - 10 pages Psychoanalysis is a system of psychology originated by the Viennese physician Sigmund FREUD in the 1890's and then further developed by himself, his students, and other followers. It consists of three kinds of related activities: (1) a method for research into the human mind, especially inner experiences such as thoughts, feelings, emotions, fantasies, and dreams; (2) a systematic accumulation of a body of knowledge about the mind; and (3) a