Motivation Moving Us To Take Action

2608 words - 11 pages

Untitled

Jeremy Q. Brooks

Monday June 7, 2010

A.P. Psychology

Period 5

Motivation

Moving us to take action

Motivation can be defined as the driving force behind all the actions of an individual. The influence of an individual's needs and desires both have a strong impact on the direction of their behavior. Motivation is based on your emotions and achievement-related goals. There are different forms of motivation including extrinsic, intrinsic, physiological, and achievement motivation. There are also more negative forms of motivation. Achievement motivation can be defined as the need for success or the attainment of excellence. Individuals will satisfy their needs through different means, and are driven to succeed for varying reasons both internal and external.

Motivation is the basic drive for all of our actions. Motivation refers to the dynamics of our behavior, which involves our needs, desires, and ambitions in life. Achievement motivation is based on reaching success and achieving all of our aspirations in life. Achievement goals can affect the way a person performs a task and represent a desire to show competence. These basic physiological motivational drives affect our natural behavior in different environments. Most of our goals are incentive-based and can vary from basic hunger to the need for love and the establishment of mature sexual relationships. Our motives for achievement can range from biological needs to satisfying creative desires or realizing success in competitive ventures. Motivation is important because it affects our lives every day. All of our behaviors, actions, thoughts, and beliefs are influenced by our inner drive to succeed.

Motivational researchers share the view that achievement behavior is an interaction between situational variables and the individual subject's motivation to achieve. Two motives are directly involved in the prediction of behavior, implicit and explicit. Implicit motives are spontaneous impulses to act, also known as task performances, and are aroused through incentives inherent to the task. Explicit motives are expressed through deliberate choices and more often stimulated for extrinsic reasons. Also, individuals with strong implicit needs to achieve goals set higher internal standards, whereas others tend to adhere to the societal norms. These two motives often work together to determine the behavior of the individual in direction and passion.

Explicit and implicit motivations have a compelling impact on behavior. Task behaviors are accelerated in the face of a challenge through implicit motivation, making performing a task in the most effective manner the primary goal. A person with a strong implicit drive will feel pleasure from achieving a goal in the most efficient way. The increase in effort and overcoming the challenge by mastering the task satisfies the individual. However, the explicit motives are built around a person's self-image. This type of motivation shapes a person's behavior based on their own self-view and can influence their choices and responses from outside cues. The primary agent for this type of motivation is perception or perceived ability. Many theorists still cannot agree whether achievement is based on mastering one's skills or striving to promote a better self-image. Most research is still unable to determine whether these different types of motivation would result in different behaviors in the same environment.

Achievement motivation has been conceptualized in many different ways. Our understanding of achievement-relevant effects, cognition, and behavior has improved. Despite being similar in nature, many achievement motivation approaches have been developed separately, suggesting that most achievement motivation theories are in concordance with one another instead of competing. Motivational researchers have sought to promote a hierarchal model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation by incorporating the two prominent theories: the achievement motive approach and the achievement goal approach. Achievement motives include the need for achievement and the fear of failure. Theorists have proposed that people's achievement goals affect their achievement-related attitudes and behaviors. Two different types of achievement-related attitudes include task-involvement and ego-involvement. Task-involvement is a motivational state in which a person's main goal is to acquire skills and understanding whereas the main goal in ego-involvement is to demonstrate superior abilities. One example of an activity where someone strives to attain mastery and demonstrate superior ability is schoolwork. However situational cues, such as the person's environment or surroundings, can affect the success of achieving a goal at any time.

Self-worth theory states that in certain situations students stand to gain by not trying and deliberately withholding effort. If poor performance is a threat to a person's sense of self-esteem, this lack of effort is likely to occur. This most often occurs after an experience of failure. Failure threatens self-estimates of ability and creates uncertainty about an individual's capability to perform well on a subsequent basis. If the following performance turns out to be poor, then doubts concerning ability are confirmed. Self-worth theory states that one way to avoid threat to self-esteem is by withdrawing effort. Withdrawing effort allows failure to be attributed to lack of effort rather than low ability which reduces overall risk to the value of one's self-esteem. When poor performance is likely to reflect poor ability, a situation of high threat is created to the individual's intellect. On the other hand, if an excuse allows poor performance to be attributed to a factor unrelated to ability, the threat to self-esteem and one's intellect is much lower.

In everyday life, individuals strive to be competent in their activities. In the past decade, many theorists have utilized a social-cognitive achievement goal approach in accounting for individuals striving for competence. An achievement goal is commonly defined as the purpose for engaging in a task, and the specific type of goal taken on creates a framework for how individuals experience their achievement pursuits. Achievement goal theorists commonly identify two distinct ideas toward competence: a performance goal focused on demonstrating ability when compared to others, and a mastery goal focused on the development of competence and task mastery. Performance goals are hypothesized to produce vulnerability to certain response patterns in achievement settings such as preferences for easy tasks, withdrawal of effort in the face of failure, and decreased task enjoyment. Mastery goals can lead to a motivational pattern that creates a preference for moderately challenging tasks, persistence in the face of failure, and increased enjoyment of tasks.

Intrinsic motivation is defined as the enjoyment of an interest in an activity for its own sake. Fundamentally viewed as an approach form of motivation, intrinsic motivation is identified as an important component of achievement goal theory. Most achievement goal and intrinsic motivational theorists argue that mastery goals are facilitative of intrinsic motivation and related mental processes and performance goals create negative effects. Mastery goals are said to promote intrinsic motivation by fostering perceptions of challenge, encouraging task involvement, generating excitement, and supporting self-determination while performance goals are the opposite. Performance goals are portrayed as undermining intrinsic motivation by instilling perceptions of threat, disrupting task involvement, and creating anxiety and pressure.

An alternative set of predictions may be derived from the approach-avoidance framework. Both performance-approach and mastery goals are focused on attaining competence and foster intrinsic motivation. More specifically, in performance-approach or mastery orientations, individuals perceive the achievement setting as a challenge, and this likely will create excitement, encourage cognitive functioning, increase concentration and task absorption, and direct the person toward success and mastery of information which facilitates intrinsic motivation. The performance-avoidance goal is focused on avoiding incompetence, where individuals see the achievement setting as a threat and seek to escape it. This orientation is likely to elicit anxiety and withdrawal of effort and cognitive resources while disrupting concentration and motivation.

Motivation is an important factor in everyday life. Our basic behaviors and feelings are affected by our inner drive to succeed over life's challenges while we set goals for ourselves. Our motivation also promotes our feelings of competence and self-worth as we achieve our goals. It provides us with means to compete with others in order to better ourselves and to seek out new information to learn and absorb. Individuals experience motivation in different ways, whether it is task- or ego-based in nature. Some people strive to achieve their goals for personal satisfaction and self-improvement while others compete with their surroundings in achievement settings to simply be classified as the best. Motivation and the resulting behavior are both affected by the many different models of achievement motivation. These models, although separate, are very similar in nature and theory. The mastery and performance achievement settings each have a considerable effect on how an individual is motivated. Each theorist has made a contribution to the existing theories in today's achievement studies. More often than not, theorists build off of each other's work to expand old ideas and create new ones. Achievement motivation is an intriguing field, and I find myself more interested after reviewing similar theories from different perspectives.

Emotion is different from motivation in that there is not necessarily a goal orientation affiliated with it. Emotions occur as a result of an interaction between perception of environmental stimuli, neural/hormonal responses to these perceptions (often labeled feelings), and subjective cognitive labeling of these feelings. Evidence suggests there is a small core of core emotions that are uniquely associated with a specific facial expression. This implies that there are a small number of unique biological responses that are genetically hard-wired to specific facial expressions. A further implication is that the process works in reverse: if you want to change your feelings, you can do so by changing your facial expression. That is, if you are motivated to change how you feel and your feeling is associated with a specific facial expression, you can change that feeling by purposively changing your facial expression. Since most of us would rather feel happy than otherwise, the most appropriate facial expression would be a smile.

Most motivation theorists assume that motivation is involved in the performance of all learned responses; that is, a learned behavior will not occur unless it is energized. The major question among psychologists, in general, is whether motivation is a primary or secondary influence on behavior. That is, are changes in behavior better explained by principles of environmental/ecological influences, perception, memory, cognitive development, emotion, explanatory style, or personality or are concepts unique to motivation more pertinent.

For example, we know that people respond to increasingly complex or novel events (or stimuli) in the environment up to a point and then responses decrease. This inverted-U-shaped curve of behavior is well-known and widely acknowledged. However, the major issue is one of explaining this phenomenon. Is this a conditioning (is the individual behaving because of past classical or operant conditioning), a motivational process (from an internal state of arousal), or is there some better explanation?

The theoretical issues proposed in motivational theories such as the economic man developed by McGregor and the benefits of setting specific and difficult goals are important. The distinction on how they motivate an individual is a major influence on behavior. Applying motivational theory to an educational context we draw our attention toward skill development, satisfaction and achievement. It is believed that "individuals are mutually motivated to learn when they do not have to fear failure, when they perceive what they are learning as being personally meaningful and relevant and when they are in respectful and supportive relationships with teachers". Therefore, by using a goal setting approach to motivate students, student participation in selection of objectives in as "research on the motivational value of goals, both the check-mark and behavioral/performance objective systems seem to motivate students to improve performance". However, with today's rapid change and emergence of new knowledge and theory, universities will have more concepts on which to build and develop on "motivating the school's participants so as to obtain the best possible educational results".

RELATED

Core Reading Annotated Bibliography - Ivy Tech / ENGL 111 - Essay

2682 words - 11 pages , and that increased activity can improve fitness” (Martin, Kulinna, & Cothran, 2002). It has been proposed utilizing different sorts of PC programs, physical action, motivational platform sheets, and the advancing of positive evaluation where there is no correlation of student accomplishment among their companions will significantly impact the students' certainty and motivation to learn. “How will we know if students learned without assessing? The

Adult Learning Styles Paper

694 words - 3 pages office. She has worked there over 5 years. She has identified her adult learning style as a tactile learner. Tactile learners are people who learn best by doing. These learners rely on touch, taste, smell, and feelings to learn well. Tactile learners often take notes during a lecture, but never look at them again. Learning is based on how the individual brain processes information and the environment provided to learn this information in. Tactile

Paper On Management, People & Organizations

4215 words - 17 pages behaviour observed by anyone.Organisation culture is shared by everybody in an organisation and determines to a great extent how people think, behave and where they place their priorities. In the Quinlan's case study, the organisations expressed values and beliefs have been cultivated by the founder Sir Thomas Quinlan himself. These beliefs are the guiding factors that influence how people think and feel within the organisation. Let us take a look at

Being, belonging, doing and becoming, and self-efficacy, motivation etc. in occupations - Human Mind and Behaviour - Essay

3199 words - 13 pages a player with strong self-efficacy may try unfamiliar playing positions, play for extended periods before substituting off, run faster than other players, require little motivation from external sources and take responsibility for any of their failures. Self-efficacy relates to being as it is a perception of oneself as an occupational being. Lewin described motivation as the “psychological driving force” (as cited in Fishbach & Touré-Tillery, M

Understanding and Managing People - Motivation - mmu - ESSAY

2139 words - 9 pages internal desire that makes people want to achieve things in life or in other words it can be clarified as the force within the individual that influences or directs behaviour (Fincham and Rhodes, 2005). Motivation implicates the action taken by people to achieve/fulfil unmet needs. It is the desire to apply effort in order to achieve a goal or reward to minimise the anxiety caused by the need. As mentioned before human beings have different ways

Essay on a High School Commencement Speech - CSU ENG 101 - Essay

604 words - 3 pages in prom tickets which lead to the most prom attendance in school history. I remember freshman year when we were on a new hall with brand new teachers who were recently in the same spot as us. It was funny because some were just a few years older than us. Others were new to classrooms. And only one had been there for a while. Our attitude has changed a lot since we were freshman and even our mental toughness. Bradley Whitford once said, “Take

Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs - Psychology - Research Paper

1288 words - 6 pages Free . According to Maslow, there are general types of needs (physiological, safety, love, and esteem) that must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. He called these needs "deficiency needs." As long as we are motivated to satisfy these cravings, we are moving towards growth, toward self-actualization. Satisfying needs is healthy; blocking gratification makes us sick or evil. In other words, we are all "needs junkies" with cravings that must

Business Studies Marketing Plan - Business Studies - Marketing Plan

4075 words - 17 pages Analysis Fitness R Us is currently situated within steady-state segment of the post-maturity stage of the business life cycle. With 20+ years market experience, Fitness R Us have established a relationship and reputation within the Hills Area that is an advantageous factor to their ability to overcome this plateau, and assist in moving into the stage of renewal, which is essential as a steady-state does not last. Sales for Fitness R Us have been

End Gun violence for any school and everywhere - Blackville hilda high school - Essay

1142 words - 5 pages your life but it should give you motivation to go and probe everyone that has doubted you wrong. Not every kid grows up as blessed as others. It's always another way out you just have to use your brain and over come all the doubt and take that as motivation to make yourself better. We can do anything we put our mind to we just have to believe in ourselves. There is nothing in this world you should tell yourself no about. As a young black African

Custom Laws for "and that it is customs makes it law" - History 215 wilbur wirght - Assignment

924 words - 4 pages their rights to selling that played negative role resulting in feminine repression. They denied females of the same rights, moving them to the least profitable corners of the market. Porter captures the situation, “men in positions of power felt privileged to attempt to take sex from women who worked on streets regardless or their desires or marital status” (Porter 133). Males exploited females and tried to take advantages of the customs and laws

Elements of "The Scarlet Ibis"

433 words - 2 pages , therefore making this period a period of falling action. D. Resolution - The resolution is the outcome of the conflict. After the climax there was the falling action. After the falling action there was the resolution which was the death of Doodle.2. Theme - The theme of the literature is revealed by analyzing characters. To analyze characters you must look at the following: A. Motivation - The motivation is the cause of an actions

C204 Managing Human Capital Task 1 - Western Governor's University - Assignment

2913 words - 12 pages Free . By knowing the suppliers manufacturing needs and expectations, Weight Loss Solutions, Inc is able to guarantee a product that is made accurately and promptly every time it’s purchased. If the benefits and factors above aren’t enough to sell you on this product, I’ll offer up my own weight loss results for you to look at for extra motivation. I lost 26 pounds in just over 3 months by adding this product into my daily routine. Take my advice, and

Trading Strategies For Alina Limited (Australian Stock Exchange): Make A Buy, Sell Or Hold Recommendation Using Various Technical Trading Strategies

2615 words - 11 pages continues and consumer spending continues to take a hit (DailyFX, 2005). These factors along with relatively stable growth in the US have lead to the appreciation of the USD against the JPY.One of the most popular overbought/oversold indicators is the Relative Strength Index (RSI). It measures the velocity of the price movement compared to that of yesterdays and the previous days before that. The main signal that we can look at is the overbought

Paul Ehrlich and the “Population Bomb” - California State University Northridge, URBS 150 - Research Paper

1232 words - 5 pages children or to men who got vasectomies.” With the issue on slowing down the rapid population growth, I believe we can take action without having to drastically change population control measures. ​According to Worldwatch Institute President Robert Engelman in his book, ​Moving Toward Sustainable Prosperity​, there are a few steps we can take to slow or stop population growth.​ First, we could perhaps provide universal access to contraceptives for

Utilitarianism and Capital Punishment - Study of Religion - Essay

1222 words - 5 pages UTILITARIANISM AND CAPITAL PUNISHMENT CARMEN LEE It is not unusual for a politician to say that a piece of legislation was passed due to the fact that it did the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Perhaps you have heard someone justify their actions with the reasoning that it was “for the greater good.” This makes us wonder, what is the criteria for what makes a policy or action morally right? For many, personal morals and ethics