MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
Darwin’s theory of natural selection caused many psychologists to try and explain all human behaviors through instincts, most agree that our behavior is motivated by other biological and psychological factors.
Drive reduction theory – behavior is motivated by biological needs. A need is one of our requirements for survival, a drive is our impulse to act in a way that satisfies this need
Homeostasis- balanced internal state
Drives are primary and secondary-
Primary- biological needs like thirst and hunger
Secondary – learned drives like money
Drive reduction theory cannot explain all our motivations.
Arousal Theory- states that we seek an optimum level of excitement or arousal, most of us perform best with an optimum level of arousal.
Yerkes-Dobson law –high level of arousal may cause us to perform well at easy tasks but poorly on difficult tasks.
Incentive Theory – sometimes behavior is pulled by a desire, incentives are stimuli that we are drawn to due to learning
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Abraham Maslow pointed out that not all needs are created equal
Hunger Motivation – Why do we become hungry
Biological Basis – There are several biological factors
-Stomach sensation of being full
-Hypothalamus, specifically the lateral and ventomedial parts if destroyed or stimulated determine hunger
-Set-point theory, says hypothalamus wants to maintain a certain optimum body weight
-external cues, attractiveness or availability of food
-Garcia effect, learned taste aversions
-Culture and background
Eating Disorders – different cultures have drastically different rates of eating disorders, rates are highest in the U.S. The three most common are:
· Bulimia – Bulimics eat large amounts of food in a short period of time and then get rid of the food by vomiting, excessive exercise, or the use of laxatives. (Binge then Purge) Bulimics are obsessed with food and their weight, the majority of bulimics are women
· Anorexia Nervosa - Anorexics starve themselves to below 85 percent of their normal body weight and refuse to eat due to their obsession with weight, the vast majority are women
· Obesity – People with diagnosed obesity are severely overweight, often over 100 pounds, and the excess weight threatens their health. Obese people typically have unhealthy eating habits rather than the food obsessions of the other two disorders. Some people may also be genetically predisposed to obesity
Social Motivation –
Achievement Motivation – Humans seem to be motivated to figure out our world and master skills, sometimes regardless of the benefits of the skills or knowledge. Studies involve looking at differences in how people set and meet personal goals and go about acquiring new knowledge or skills.
Extrinsic motivators are rewards that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves Ex. Grades, salary, etc.
Intrinsic motivators are rewards we get internally, such as enjoyment or...