On The Problem Of Crystal Metallic Lattice In The Densest Packings Of Chemical Elements

2387 words - 10 pages

AbstractThe literature generally describes a metallic bond as the one formed by means of mutual bonds between atoms' exterior electrons and not possessing the directional properties. However, attempts have been made to explain directional metallic bonds, as a specific crystal metallic lattice.This paper demonstrates that the metallic bond in the densest packings (volume-centered and face-centered) between the centrally elected atom and its neighbours in general is, probably, effected by 9 (nine) directional bonds, as opposed to the number of neighbours which equals 12 (twelve) (coordination number).Probably, 3 (three) "foreign" atoms are present in the coordination number 12 ...view middle of the document...

The volume-centered lattice, Z=1 casts no doubt. The coordination number equals 8.The exterior electrons of the final shell or subcoats in metal atoms form conductivity zone. The number of electrons in the conductivity zone effects Hall's constant, uniform compression ratio, etc.Let us construct the model of metal - element so that external electrons of last layer or sublayers of atomic kernel, left after filling the conduction band, influenced somehow pattern of crystalline structure (for example: for the body-centred lattice - 8 'valency' electrons, and for volume-centered and face-centred lattices - 12 or 9).ROUGH, QUALITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF NUMBER OF ELECTRONS IN CONDUCTION BAND OF METAL - ELEMENT. EXPLANATION OF FACTORS, INFLUENCING FORMATION OF TYPE OF MONOCRYSTAL MATRIX AND SIGN OF HALL CONSTANT.(Algorithm of construction of model)The measurements of the Hall field allow us to determine the sign of charge carriers in the conduction band. One of the remarkable features of the Hall effect is, however, that in some metals the Hall coefficient is positive, and thus carriers in them should, probably, have the charge, opposite to the electron charge /1/. At room temperature this holds true for the following: vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, zinc, circonium, niobium, molybdenum, ruthenium, rhodium, cadmium, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, ytterbium, hafnium, tantalum, wolfram, rhenium, iridium, thallium, plumbum /2/. Solution to this enigma must be given by complete quantum - mechanical theory of solid body.Roughly speaking, using the base cases of Born- Karman, let us consider a highly simplified case of one-dimensional conduction band. The first variant: a thin closed tube is completely filled with electrons but one. The diameter of the electron roughly equals the diameter of the tube. With such filling of the area at local movement of the electron an opposite movement of the 'site' of the electron, absent in the tube, is observed, i.e. movement of non-negative sighting. The second variant: there is one electron in the tube - movement of only one charge is possible - that of the electron with a negative charge. These two opposite variants show, that the sighting of carriers, determined according to the Hall coefficient, to some extent, must depend on the filling of the conduction band with electrons. Figure 1.а) б)Figure 1. Schematic representation of the conduction band of two different metals. (scale is not observed).a) - the first variant;b) - the second variant.The order of electron movement will also be affected by the structure of the conductivity zone, as well as by the temperature, admixtures and defects. Magnetic quasi-particles, magnons, will have an impact on magnetic materials.Since our reasoning is rough, we will further take into account only filling with electrons of the conductivity zone. Let us fill the conductivity zone with electrons in such a way that the external electrons of the atomic kernel...


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