PDHPE - Better Health For Individuals - Year 11 PDHPE - Essay, Report

2390 words - 10 pages

The state and behaviour of
the health of young people in
Physical Activity 

The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia
Aim The aim of this report is to outline the nature and extent of physical activity on
young people today. It will describe the prevalence and trends of the health behaviours
of physical activity. In addition, it will outline three protective and three risk factors of
physical activity that are associated with physical activity. It will also analyse how a young
person’s physical activity levels can be determined by a range of factors and will assess
how much control they have over these determinants. It will also determine the
effectiveness of physical activity health promotion strategies.
Outline the nature of physical activity Physical activity is defined as “any bodily
movement produced by skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure.” (World Health
Organisation, 2018) Physical activity can be done at any level of skill and for enjoyment. It
includes ‘exercise’ (planned, structured and repetitive activity with a fitness goal), sport
(organised with a club or social group), incidental (unplanned such as gardening and
chores) and active play (recreation such as yoga or walking as a means of transport)
Physical inactivity is to a large extent, a major problem for young people today. The
majority of young people today aren’t meeting the daily Australian physical activity levels.
A Victorian health report “92% percent of Australian teenagers are not meeting their
daily physical activity requirements, with most spending upwards of 3 hours a day on
phones and tablet devices.” The ratio of physical activity to screen based activity was 1 to
5. It also showed how physical activity participation halves at around age 15. These
alarming statistics highly encompass the extent of the problem and how young people
are not engaging in regular physical activity.
Describe the prevalence and trends of the health behaviour
The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia
Based on this graph published by the
Australian Health Survey: Physical Activity
for 2011-12, the general trend in this data
is that physical activity levels decreased
and screen-based activity (for
entertainment purposes) has increased as
age increased. 5-8 year olds spent an
average of 2 hours engaging in physical
activity while 15-17 year olds only did half
of that (1 hour) Conversely, 15-17 year
olds spent a considerably larger amount
of time engaging in screen based leisure
activity - an average of 3 hours per day.
5-8 year olds only engaged in screen
based leisure for a mere 98 minutes on
average. Physical inactivity is more
prevalent when young people get to the
age of 15-17. Source: Australian Health Survey: Physical Activity 2011-12
Percentage of male and female students in year 6,8 and 10 engaging in more than two
hours of small screen recreation (SSR) a day
The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia
School Year
6 8 10
Boys Girls
According to the NSW schools physical activity and nutrition survey (SPANS), an
extremely high proportion of young people spend more than the recommended
maximum hours per day watching television and engaging in other small screen
behaviours. According to the findings, three quarters of high school aged boys and
two thirds of high school aged girls spent more than two hours every day on
technology purely for entertainment purposes. Physical inactivity is more prevalent as
a young person gets older considering the percentage of small screen recreational
behaviours Research has identified that these high levels of sedentary activity are a
risk behaviour associated with obesity.
Source: NSW schools physical activity and nutrition survey 2004
Outline three protective factors and three risk factors associated with
your chosen health issue for young people
There are protective and risk factors that can highly influence a young person’s physical
activity levels.
One protective factor that allows a young
person to have adequate physical activity
levels is by exercising daily. Exercising
daily is crucial in order to reduce the risk
of developing obesity, chronic diseases
and certain cancers. The Australian
Physical Activity Guidelines for Young
People (13-17) explain that “young
people aged 13–17 years should
accumulate at least 60 minutes of
moderate to vigorous intensity physical
activity every day.”
The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia
This table is representative of the prevalence of meeting the physical activity
recommendation among adolescents in secondary school. Overall, “12% of adolescents
met the physical activity recommendation and the prevalence was significantly lower
among girls (8%), compared with boys (15%)” (NSW school physical activity and
nutrition survey, 2015). Physical inactivity is more prevalent in girls as opposed to boys.
The prevalence of physical inactivity is 92% for girls and 85% for boys highlighting that
girls in Year 8 and 10 combined are less physically active than boys the same age.
Source: NSW schools physical activity and nutrition survey 2015
Another protective factor of physical
activity levels is joining a team sport. By
joining a team sport, a young person can
gain new friendships, develop social
interaction skills and gain higher self-
esteem. It will also help you to fulfil the
recommended 1 hour of physical activity
daily guideline.
Another protective factor of physical
activity is walking or riding a bike to
school. If a young person doesn't live very
far away from your school. If this is done 5
days a week, a young person is able to
gradually increase their physical activity
One risk factor of physical activity is
spending increased amounts of time in
sedentary activities. “Young people (13-17
years) should minimise the time spent
being sedentary every day and break up
long periods of sitting as much as
possible. Young people (13-17 years)
should limit their screen time to no more than 2 hours per day.” (Australia’s Physical
Activity Guidelines for Young People 13-17 years, 2014).
Another risk factor of physical activity is finding excuses to skip
exercise. Some of the most common reasons that young people
say to excuse themselves from exercising include - i’m too tired
and none of my friends do any physical activity. If this is the case,
then young people can encourage their friends to get involved in
some type of physical activity with them to make it more fun and
enjoyable. Once you start to exercise, you will feel less tired and
The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia
more motivated to keep doing it.
In addition, not managing your time well is another risk
factor for having low physical activity levels. It is
understandable that a young person’s life is busy with
different commitments such as school, part time job,
family life and social life. However, it is still achievable to
fit in some type of physical activity into a daily schedule.
Making a daily schedule will allow physical activity to be
implemented every day.
Analyse how a young person’s health can be determined by a range of
factors and assess how much control they have over these
A young person’s health can be influenced by a range of individual, sociocultural,
socioeconomic and environmental factors. These factors are referred to as the
determinants of health. Each determinant can have a positive or negative influence on a
young person and their health.
An individual factor that can determine a young person’s physical activity levels is
knowledge. In order for an individual to develop their physical activity levels, they need
to have good knowledge of the recommended physical activity levels, the protective and
risk behaviours of physical activity as well as where to get information on joining gyms,
sport teams or other physical activity programs. A sociocultural factor that is associated
with physical activity of young people is family. Families are the main role models for
young people and can highly influence a young person’s values, beliefs and habits
towards physical activity from a young age. A young person will develop good physical
activity levels because their family will bring them up to value the importance of physical
activity and its benefits to allow their child to think in the same way. A socioeconomic
factor that can determine a young person’s physical activity levels is income. Specifically,
this income will be accumulated through the young person’s family. A high income
increases access to physical activity services such as gyms, sporting team memberships
and personal trainers as well as funds for uniforms and equipment. An environmental
factor that can influence an individual’s physical activity levels is geographic location.
Inevitably, a young person who lives in a rural or remote location will have lower physical
activity levels than a young person who lives in a metropolitan location. This is due to
there being better access to sporting fields/arenas, parks and gyms in metropolitan areas
as opposed to rural or remote locations.
These health determinants can be classified as either modifiable or non-modifiable.
Modifiable determinants are those factors than can be easily changed by the individual.
The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia
Non-modifiable determinants are those factors that cannot be changed by the individual.
However, there are some determinants that need a larger or narrower focus in order to
modify them. It is easier to control modifiable determinants than non-modifiable
A health determinant that can be modified is knowledge. Knowledge is a factor of health
that can be easily modified in order to gain greater physical health. Information of how to
increase a young person’s physical activity levels are easily accessible from reliable
sources such as medical personnel, local newspapers and credible websites. Many health
organisations also release information in the form of pamphlets, media posts and public
forums in order to improve knowledge of physical activity and its benefits for young
people. Another determinant of health that can be changed is income. Family income be
boosted by the young person getting a job to contribute to the monetary needs of
physical activity. Parents and other family members are also able to increase their income
by asking their boss for a pay rise in return for extra work. In addition, a young person’s
geographical location can be changed and controlled as moving house from a rural/
remote area to a metropolitan area will enable better access to services that can help a
young person become more physically active. A health determinant that can’t be
modified is family. It is impossible to get rid of your family. A young person is born into
their family and it is something that they cannot change. It is out of a young person’s
control whether their family positively or negatively portrays physical activity. Depending
on how family members want to encourage or discourage physical activity, that is how the
young persons’ perceptions will be formed.
Determine the effectiveness of a range of health promotion strategies
relevant to young people and your chosen health issue:
CHALLENGE: The NSW Premier’s Sporting
Challenge is a government initiative that
encourages Kindergarten to Year 12
students to increase their physical activity
levels which in turn will lead to an overall
healthier and active lifestyle. It encompasses
a 10 week challenge which motivates staff
and students to participate in a wide range
of sport and recreational activities over a 10
week period. It promotes the importance of being physically active regularly. Students are
awarded with a certificate for their efforts based on the average amount of activity they
do per day. This is based on the table on the right. The NSW Premier’s Sporting
Challenge 2011 Annual Report has shown extremely positive results which highlight that
this initiative has been extremely effective in boosting physical activity in young people.
Some key findings from this report say that “In 2011, 191,731 students completed the
The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia
Source: NSW Premier’s Sporting Challenge Annual
Report 2011
Challenges, up from 74,000 students in 2008, 158,000 in 2009 and 173,441 in 2010. Over
159,000 students (83 per cent) achieved a diamond or gold award, meeting the
recommended national target for physical activity of 60 minutes per day.” (NSW Premier’s
Sporting Challenge Annual Report, 2011)
ACTIVE KIDS PROGRAM: The NSW government has
launched a new program to help young people get more
active. The program started this year and allows parents,
guardians and carers to apply for a $100 voucher per year
for each of their children (aged 4.5-18) who are enrolled in
school from Kindergarten to Year 12 inclusive of those
who are home-schooled or enrolled at secondary
education at TAFE NSW. The voucher can be used for
registration or membership payment for activities that are
eight weeks or longer and are considered to be of
moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity.
Even though this program is fairly new, it displays the proficiency in being effective to
help young people to increase their physical activity levels. It would be able to help
families who have a low socioeconomic status (SES) to fund the fees needed for their
children to participate in physical activity programs. Being able to get this voucher yearly
assists in allowing young people from low SES families to maintain their physical activity
levels for the remainder of their schooling years.
Heart Foundation Jump Rope for Heart is known for being Australia’s most popular
physical activity program in schools. It was designed to encourage school aged students
to develop a positive attitude towards exercise. Heart, stroke and blood vessel disease is
the leading cause of death in Australia, and one of the major risk factors is physical
This program has been extremely effective in allowing school aged children to increase
their physical activity levels as it has been actively encouraging kids to participate in
physical activity at school for 35 years. Each year, Jump Rope attracts more than 300,000
students in more than 1,300 schools Australia wide. This equates to more than 90% of all
Australian schools and 8 million children.
The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia

More like PDHPE - Better Health For Individuals - Year 11 PDHPE - Essay, Report


479 words - 2 pages Free ... Key Points Details Driving Speeding offences Other serious driving offences Dangerous driving causing injury or death Street or drag racing Drink Driving Driving without a licence Fine defaults Toll notices Littering from vehicles · Driver Knowledge Test, L plate (12 months but valid for 5 years), Driving test, Red P plate (12 months but valid for 18 months), Hazard perception test, Green P plate (24 months but valid for 30 months), Friver ...

How Does Dickens Create Sympathy For Scrooge In A Christmas Carol - Year 11 - Essay

1315 words - 6 pages ... 190703 How does Dickens create Sympathy for Scrooge in ‘A Christmas Carol’? In the novella ‘A Christmas Carol’, Dickens creates sympathy for Scrooge by showing the reader who he used to be, who he could have been, and how people really feel about him. He does this by structuring the novella to show Scrooge’s past, present and future, so Scrooge’s character can learn to be a better man by reflecting on his mistakes in life. In the extract ...

Production Possibilities Curves - Year 11 - Essay

808 words - 4 pages ... economy’s resources or technology change, then the production possibilities frontier will change, too. New and better technology will lead to more efficient methods of production. This might allow us to produce a higher quantity of a good with the same resources. This can be showed by an outward shift of the production possibility frontier. For example, a change in technology shifts the production possibility frontier. Resources: 5 hours of study ...

The Government, Not Individuals, Should Be Responsible For Healthcare And Welfare Provision. Discuss - Modern Studies - Essay

1545 words - 7 pages ... The Government, not individuals, should be responsible for healthcare and Welfare Provision. Discuss. (20 marks) The question of who is responsible for healthcare and welfare provision is a complex one and there is a range of theories and approaches. Some believe that the government should be responsible - and so, call for a collectivist approach. Such advocates would argue that it is the responsibility of the government to concern itself and ...

Essay On The Assassination Of JFK - Year 11 - Essay

4415 words - 18 pages Free ... doubt the report. In an internal memo, he stated ‘To put it bluntly, that sort of selection from the record could seriously affect the integrity and credibility of the entire report. These conclusions will never be accepted by critical persons anyway.’ Oswald’s whereabouts at the time of the assassination is, of course, a vitally important issue, and there is much controversy about this fact. While for the Warren Commission to be accurate, he shot ...

Nuclear Energy To Create Electricity - Year 11 - Essay

1238 words - 5 pages ... which need to be refilled over a period of time. Even though the cost of initiating the plant is expensive, once setup, an average life of a reactor is around 50 years. If we continue to use uranium at our current rate, it is estimated to last us another 70-80 years. The supply is going to last longer than fossil fuels if used in the same capacity. Nuclear power plants can uninterruptedly produce energy for up to a year without disruption in any ...

The Flexner Report Follows Three Main Policies In Order To Ensure For A More Improved Medical System - Southern Connecticut State PCH 358 - Public Health Essay

1907 words - 8 pages ... constitutionality, states are moving forward with their own healthcare reforms, and states and the federal government are cutting what they spend on healthcare.” (Van Gorder, Topol pp.5) It is more than essential for our healthcare system to be revised in order to better serve individuals in their medical care. Is the Affordable Care Act known as the modern day Flexner Report? It may not hold all of the same guidelines and values as the Flexner report, but ...

That Melbourne Is Better Than Sydney - Persuasive Essay For Yr 10 Enlgish

818 words - 4 pages ... around, or you will find yourself stuck in a maze with no way to get out.The main criteria in the Economist Intelligence Unit survey focused on the three main categories of health & safety, culture & environment and infrastructure. Melbourne acquired a perfect score in every single one of those categories, whereas Sydney lost points for its climate and high house prices, which along with Melbourne's affordability, cultural diversity and excellent transportation system; confirm that Melbourne is indeed a better city to live in than Sydney. ...

Belonging Essay Of Prescribed Text - Tempest - Advanced English Year 11 - Essay

974 words - 4 pages ... Belonging Essay How are aspects of belonging used in your text to convey ideas about the human experience? Belonging is not a fixed state, but a changeable spectrum, ranging from themes of alienation to perfect belonging, with a vast territory of possible human experiences in between. An individual’s sense of placement within this spectrum varies between people and is created from our personality traits, personal circumstances, and the ...

Conflict Essay - To Kill A Mockingbird And Prelude To War - Magdalene, Year 11 - Essay

855 words - 4 pages ... Conflict Essay “An individual’s perception of conflict is intrinsically linked to their core values and beliefs!”  To what extent is this view represented in the texts studied? Refer to To Kill a Mockingbird, Prelude to War and one related text. Through an individual’s perspective and central principles, it is an essential component for the insight of conflict. This is extensively engrained in the texts To Kill a Mockingbird, Prelude to War and ...

A Doll's House + The Handmaid's Tale Essay - Year 11 - English Extension 1 - Essay

890 words - 4 pages ... ESSAY – SILENT VOICES: A Doll’s House & The Handmaid’s Tale Composers challenge the values of their individual contexts through transgressive characters, forms and literary devices, thus creating space and agency for silent voices. This idea is depicted in the play A Doll’s House written by Henrik Ibsen and the novel The Handmaid’s Tale by Margaret Atwood. Atwood and Ibsen uphold the values within their respective 1970s - 80s context and 19th ...

Complexities Of Teenage Life - Holden Caufield - English - Year 11 Close Study Of Text 2017 - Essay

1100 words - 5 pages ... The Catcher in the Rye – Critical Essay In the prescribed novel, ‘The Catcher in the Rye’ written by J. D. Salinger, elaborates on the consecutive complexities of Holden Caulfield’s teenage life. Holden’s youngest brothers’ recent death attributes to his depressive complexities. In correlation with a diminishing school life, these complexities are seen to influence Holden’s mental health. In spite of the fact that, Holden’s future is ...

How Does Genetic Modification In Agriculture Benefit The Food Production Industry? - Agriculture - Year 11 Essay

1445 words - 6 pages ... question: how can farmers create higher yields using the same amount of land? Dating back 15,000 years, humans were foragers who lived together in tribes. People tended to live closer to coastal areas as the fish population was abundant and easy to catch, however, as our population grew the hunter-gatherer lifestyle no longer supplied food to the increased amount of people in the tribes. Humans needed to find new ways to provide food for each other ...

Case Study For Chinese Economic Development - Final Year - Essay

3499 words - 14 pages ... 1978 only accounted for 11% of economic activity, characteristics of government policies promoting and emphasising ‘self-sufficiency’. The extensive reforms that commenced in 1978 re-oriented the country from a centrally planned economy towards an increasingly decentralised and market-based economy. Since economic reforms GDP has increased from US $189.4 billion in 1978 to $US 356.9 billion in 1990 to US$ 10.36 trillion in 2014. The increase in ...

The Most Important Reason For Westward Expansion - Year 12 - Essay

1718 words - 7 pages ... By Aaron-Vir Chana Year 13 History ‘The most important reason for expansion in the West in the years 1865-90 was the development of the railroads.’ Assess the validity of this view. [25 Marks] The USA experienced rapid westward expansion from the 1860’s onwards due to the interaction of a variety of factors. This, in turn, had important economic and social effects on the USA. There were many major improvements in both economic and social fields ...