Pdhpe Better Health For Individuals Year 11 Pdhpe Essay, Report

2390 words - 10 pages

The state and behaviour of
the health of young people in
Australia
Physical Activity 

The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia
�1
Aim The aim of this report is to outline the nature and extent of physical activity on
young people today. It will describe the prevalence and trends of the health behaviours
of physical activity. In addition, it will outline three protective and three risk factors of
physical activity that are associated with physical activity. It will also analyse how a young
person’s physical activity levels can be determined by a range of factors and will assess
how much control they have over these determinants. It will also determine the
effectiveness of physical activity health promotion strategies.
Outline the nature of physical activity Physical activity is defined as “any bodily
movement produced by skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure.” (World Health
Organisation, 2018) Physical activity can be done at any level of skill and for enjoyment. It
includes ‘exercise’ (planned, structured and repetitive activity with a fitness goal), sport
(organised with a club or social group), incidental (unplanned such as gardening and
chores) and active play (recreation such as yoga or walking as a means of transport)
Physical inactivity is to a large extent, a major problem for young people today. The
majority of young people today aren’t meeting the daily Australian physical activity levels.
A Victorian health report “92% percent of Australian teenagers are not meeting their
daily physical activity requirements, with most spending upwards of 3 hours a day on
phones and tablet devices.” The ratio of physical activity to screen based activity was 1 to
5. It also showed how physical activity participation halves at around age 15. These
alarming statistics highly encompass the extent of the problem and how young people
are not engaging in regular physical activity.
Describe the prevalence and trends of the health behaviour
The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia
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Based on this graph published by the
Australian Health Survey: Physical Activity
for 2011-12, the general trend in this data
is that physical activity levels decreased
and screen-based activity (for
entertainment purposes) has increased as
age increased. 5-8 year olds spent an
average of 2 hours engaging in physical
activity while 15-17 year olds only did half
of that (1 hour) Conversely, 15-17 year
olds spent a considerably larger amount
of time engaging in screen based leisure
activity - an average of 3 hours per day.
5-8 year olds only engaged in screen
based leisure for a mere 98 minutes on
average. Physical inactivity is more
prevalent when young people get to the
age of 15-17. Source: Australian Health Survey: Physical Activity 2011-12
Percentage of male and female students in year 6,8 and 10 engaging in more than two
hours of small screen recreation (SSR) a day
The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia
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Pr
ev
ale
nc
e
of
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2
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/p
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S
SR
(%
)
0
20
40
60
80
School Year
6 8 10
Boys Girls
According to the NSW schools physical activity and nutrition survey (SPANS), an
extremely high proportion of young people spend more than the recommended
maximum hours per day watching television and engaging in other small screen
behaviours. According to the findings, three quarters of high school aged boys and
two thirds of high school aged girls spent more than two hours every day on
technology purely for entertainment purposes. Physical inactivity is more prevalent as
a young person gets older considering the percentage of small screen recreational
behaviours Research has identified that these high levels of sedentary activity are a
risk behaviour associated with obesity.
Source: NSW schools physical activity and nutrition survey 2004
Outline three protective factors and three risk factors associated with
your chosen health issue for young people
There are protective and risk factors that can highly influence a young person’s physical
activity levels.
PROTECTIVE FACTORS:
One protective factor that allows a young
person to have adequate physical activity
levels is by exercising daily. Exercising
daily is crucial in order to reduce the risk
of developing obesity, chronic diseases
and certain cancers. The Australian
Physical Activity Guidelines for Young
People (13-17) explain that “young
people aged 13–17 years should
accumulate at least 60 minutes of
moderate to vigorous intensity physical
activity every day.”
The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia
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This table is representative of the prevalence of meeting the physical activity
recommendation among adolescents in secondary school. Overall, “12% of adolescents
met the physical activity recommendation and the prevalence was significantly lower
among girls (8%), compared with boys (15%)” (NSW school physical activity and
nutrition survey, 2015). Physical inactivity is more prevalent in girls as opposed to boys.
The prevalence of physical inactivity is 92% for girls and 85% for boys highlighting that
girls in Year 8 and 10 combined are less physically active than boys the same age.
Source: NSW schools physical activity and nutrition survey 2015
Another protective factor of physical
activity levels is joining a team sport. By
joining a team sport, a young person can
gain new friendships, develop social
interaction skills and gain higher self-
esteem. It will also help you to fulfil the
recommended 1 hour of physical activity
daily guideline.
Another protective factor of physical
activity is walking or riding a bike to
school. If a young person doesn't live very
far away from your school. If this is done 5
days a week, a young person is able to
gradually increase their physical activity
levels.
RISK FACTORS:
One risk factor of physical activity is
spending increased amounts of time in
sedentary activities. “Young people (13-17
years) should minimise the time spent
being sedentary every day and break up
long periods of sitting as much as
possible. Young people (13-17 years)
should limit their screen time to no more than 2 hours per day.” (Australia’s Physical
Activity Guidelines for Young People 13-17 years, 2014).
Another risk factor of physical activity is finding excuses to skip
exercise. Some of the most common reasons that young people
say to excuse themselves from exercising include - i’m too tired
and none of my friends do any physical activity. If this is the case,
then young people can encourage their friends to get involved in
some type of physical activity with them to make it more fun and
enjoyable. Once you start to exercise, you will feel less tired and
The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia
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more motivated to keep doing it.
In addition, not managing your time well is another risk
factor for having low physical activity levels. It is
understandable that a young person’s life is busy with
different commitments such as school, part time job,
family life and social life. However, it is still achievable to
fit in some type of physical activity into a daily schedule.
Making a daily schedule will allow physical activity to be
implemented every day.
Analyse how a young person’s health can be determined by a range of
factors and assess how much control they have over these
determinants
A young person’s health can be influenced by a range of individual, sociocultural,
socioeconomic and environmental factors. These factors are referred to as the
determinants of health. Each determinant can have a positive or negative influence on a
young person and their health.
An individual factor that can determine a young person’s physical activity levels is
knowledge. In order for an individual to develop their physical activity levels, they need
to have good knowledge of the recommended physical activity levels, the protective and
risk behaviours of physical activity as well as where to get information on joining gyms,
sport teams or other physical activity programs. A sociocultural factor that is associated
with physical activity of young people is family. Families are the main role models for
young people and can highly influence a young person’s values, beliefs and habits
towards physical activity from a young age. A young person will develop good physical
activity levels because their family will bring them up to value the importance of physical
activity and its benefits to allow their child to think in the same way. A socioeconomic
factor that can determine a young person’s physical activity levels is income. Specifically,
this income will be accumulated through the young person’s family. A high income
increases access to physical activity services such as gyms, sporting team memberships
and personal trainers as well as funds for uniforms and equipment. An environmental
factor that can influence an individual’s physical activity levels is geographic location.
Inevitably, a young person who lives in a rural or remote location will have lower physical
activity levels than a young person who lives in a metropolitan location. This is due to
there being better access to sporting fields/arenas, parks and gyms in metropolitan areas
as opposed to rural or remote locations.
These health determinants can be classified as either modifiable or non-modifiable.
Modifiable determinants are those factors than can be easily changed by the individual.
The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia
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Non-modifiable determinants are those factors that cannot be changed by the individual.
However, there are some determinants that need a larger or narrower focus in order to
modify them. It is easier to control modifiable determinants than non-modifiable
determinants.
A health determinant that can be modified is knowledge. Knowledge is a factor of health
that can be easily modified in order to gain greater physical health. Information of how to
increase a young person’s physical activity levels are easily accessible from reliable
sources such as medical personnel, local newspapers and credible websites. Many health
organisations also release information in the form of pamphlets, media posts and public
forums in order to improve knowledge of physical activity and its benefits for young
people. Another determinant of health that can be changed is income. Family income be
boosted by the young person getting a job to contribute to the monetary needs of
physical activity. Parents and other family members are also able to increase their income
by asking their boss for a pay rise in return for extra work. In addition, a young person’s
geographical location can be changed and controlled as moving house from a rural/
remote area to a metropolitan area will enable better access to services that can help a
young person become more physically active. A health determinant that can’t be
modified is family. It is impossible to get rid of your family. A young person is born into
their family and it is something that they cannot change. It is out of a young person’s
control whether their family positively or negatively portrays physical activity. Depending
on how family members want to encourage or discourage physical activity, that is how the
young persons’ perceptions will be formed.
Determine the effectiveness of a range of health promotion strategies
relevant to young people and your chosen health issue:
THE NSW PREMIER’S SPORTING
CHALLENGE: The NSW Premier’s Sporting
Challenge is a government initiative that
encourages Kindergarten to Year 12
students to increase their physical activity
levels which in turn will lead to an overall
healthier and active lifestyle. It encompasses
a 10 week challenge which motivates staff
and students to participate in a wide range
of sport and recreational activities over a 10
week period. It promotes the importance of being physically active regularly. Students are
awarded with a certificate for their efforts based on the average amount of activity they
do per day. This is based on the table on the right. The NSW Premier’s Sporting
Challenge 2011 Annual Report has shown extremely positive results which highlight that
this initiative has been extremely effective in boosting physical activity in young people.
Some key findings from this report say that “In 2011, 191,731 students completed the
The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia
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Source: NSW Premier’s Sporting Challenge Annual
Report 2011
Challenges, up from 74,000 students in 2008, 158,000 in 2009 and 173,441 in 2010. Over
159,000 students (83 per cent) achieved a diamond or gold award, meeting the
recommended national target for physical activity of 60 minutes per day.” (NSW Premier’s
Sporting Challenge Annual Report, 2011)
ACTIVE KIDS PROGRAM: The NSW government has
launched a new program to help young people get more
active. The program started this year and allows parents,
guardians and carers to apply for a $100 voucher per year
for each of their children (aged 4.5-18) who are enrolled in
school from Kindergarten to Year 12 inclusive of those
who are home-schooled or enrolled at secondary
education at TAFE NSW. The voucher can be used for
registration or membership payment for activities that are
eight weeks or longer and are considered to be of
moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity.
Even though this program is fairly new, it displays the proficiency in being effective to
help young people to increase their physical activity levels. It would be able to help
families who have a low socioeconomic status (SES) to fund the fees needed for their
children to participate in physical activity programs. Being able to get this voucher yearly
assists in allowing young people from low SES families to maintain their physical activity
levels for the remainder of their schooling years.
HEART FOUNDATION JUMP ROPE FOR HEART:
Heart Foundation Jump Rope for Heart is known for being Australia’s most popular
physical activity program in schools. It was designed to encourage school aged students
to develop a positive attitude towards exercise. Heart, stroke and blood vessel disease is
the leading cause of death in Australia, and one of the major risk factors is physical
inactivity.
This program has been extremely effective in allowing school aged children to increase
their physical activity levels as it has been actively encouraging kids to participate in
physical activity at school for 35 years. Each year, Jump Rope attracts more than 300,000
students in more than 1,300 schools Australia wide. This equates to more than 90% of all
Australian schools and 8 million children.
The state and behaviour of the health of young people in Australia
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