Section (A): Concepts and Distinctions 2. Briefly outline Socrates' 'Turn towards Humanism.' In what did this 'turn' consist, and how did it set Socrates apart from his pre-Socratic predecessors?
Socrates' 'Turn towards Humanism' was something Socrates chose as his primary focus in philosophy as he believed that before learning the nature of the universe and everything else in it, we must know and understand the nature of human beings and understanding the preeminent ways human beings can be wise and good people. The whole aspect of Humanism consisted of moral and social criticism as he focused more on the people and their daily lives hence focusing more on the ethical branch. Because the choices we make define us and attaining the proper knowledge can help us be better men. For example, the pre-Socratic philosophers such as Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, and Heraclitus all focused on the Metaphysical aspect of Philosophy, they wanted to explain the nature of how the universe works. They didn't have a lot to say about humans and how they should ethically live their lives, the pre-Socratic Philosophers were kind of the big-picture guys. The closest we get to it relating to humans is when Anaximenes told our souls to air as they hold us and the universe together.
Section (B): Arguments (10 pts) 1. Is the soul immortal? Identify a position on this philosophical controversy and offer two, positive supporting considerations in favor of your view.
Yes, I do believe the soul is immortal because there are a lot arguments and ideas in the dialogues to justify it. The first reason I believe the soul is immortal is because in Phaedo just before moments leading to Socrates' death, he explains how death is just a key to separating the soul from your body as your body is associated with pleasures for example sexual desires, look good or dress fancy etc. Whereas your soul has the ability to continue the search for 'acquisition of knowledge' as truth can only be achieved when the bodily desires are left behind thus death separating those desires with the power to search for the truth without anything holding you back. The following can be found in Phaedo (65b-e).
Another reason why the souls are immortal is backed up in the Socratic dialogue, Phaedo. Plato believed that we live in a world of forms meaning anything we see is just an idea of what the perfect version of it looks like in the world of forms where everything is in a perpetual state. For example, if we were to draw triangle on paper we could do it a million times and they would not be perfect because the triangle we draw is an idea of what the real triangle looks like in the realm of forms. Furthermore, Plato argues that souls would have to be immortal because only sel...