Prehistory Essay

1493 words - 6 pages

MEDIJSKO SVEUČILIŠTE U KOPRIVNICISTUDIJ MEDIJSKOG DIZAJNAIva GrubješićKRONOLOŠKE CJELINE PRETHISTORIJE -Seminarski rad-u Koprivnici, 16.10.2013.Kronološki gledano, prethistorija se dijeli na tri cjeline, paleolitik, mezolitik i neolitik. Paleolitik, ili starije kameno doba dijeli se još na: donji paleolitik,.srednji paleolitik i gornji paleolitik. Mezolitik je bio neka vrsta prijelaznog, tranzicijskog razdoblja, te je u svakoj regiji trajao drugačije. Iz neolitičkog razdoblja ne nalazi se mnogo umjetnina, te se smatra da su ljudi u to doba stvarali na drvu ili nekoj sličnoj, nepostojanoj građi. Paleolitik - starije kameno doba ...view middle of the document...

Još jedan bitan lokalitet jest i Altmira u sjevernoj Španjolskoj, gdje su slike jako dobro očuvane.Osim špiljske umjetnosti, ljudi iz tog razdoblja radili su i crteže i rezbarije izrađene od kosti, roga ili kamena, veličine dlana. Vješto su ih oblikovali kremenim oruđem. U špilji u jugozapadnoj Njemačkoj nađeni su najstariji kipići od bjelokosti mamuta, stari oko 30.000 godina. Rezbarije su nastajale prepoznavanjem i doradom sličnosti, što znači da su ljudi tražili posebne oblike kamena koje bi samo bilo potrebno malo urediti kako bi postale neka smislena figurica. Naprimjer, pupak Willendorfske Venere, središnja točka lika, prirodna je udubina u kamenu. Mezolitik - srednje kameno doba (10.000 god.pr.Kr. - 6.500 god.pr.Kr) Mezolitik je bio tranzicijsko razdoblje. Ovdje su se lovci/sakupljači polako transformirali u poljodjelce. Što se duže povlačio led u nekoj regiji, duže je trajalo mezolitsko razdoblje. Naprimjer, na Srednjem Istoku, gdje nije bilo leda, ljudi se brzo transformirali u poljodjelce, te tako polako počinju nastajati i prva naselja, te najstariji naseljeni grad, Jerihon. U mezolitičkoj umjetnosti, za razliku od špiljske umjetnosti, gdje se u prvom redu prikazuju životinje uz poneki ljudski lik, ovdje je čovjek vrlo naglašen, prikazivan u grupama ljudi koji izvode neki obred ili ritual, ili u lovu.Neolitik - mlađe kameno doba ( između 10.000 god.pr.Kr - 4.500-2000 god.pr.Kr)U ovom se razdoblju počinju razvijati prva naselja i gradovi. Pojavljuje se Jerihon, na području zapadne obale Mediterana. Izgled ovog grada bio je sljedeći: kuće su bile kamene, uredno gipsanih podova, te su se nalazile u zidinama zaštićenom gradu, s kulama koje su bile vrlo grube i čvrste konstrukcije. Lončarstvo nije postojalo. U Jerihonu su pronađeni kipovi glava, koji datiraju otprilike 7.000 god.pr.Kr. Radi se o ljudskim lubanjama s rekonstruiranim licima od obojenog gipsa, a umjesto očiju imale su komadiće morskih školjki. Kipovi su veoma precizno modelirani, između izbočina i ravnih površina prijelazi su fini, vidi se kako je kipar imao osjećaj za odnos kosti i mesa. Svako je lice unikatno, crte lica, izraz i oblik su posebni na svakom kipu, te su tako prozvani prvim glasnicima portretiranja. Pretpostavlja se kako su to bili obožavani preci, te su tijela predaka bila pokopana, a glave izložene. Neolitički čovjek smatrao je da je duh smješten u glavi. U današnjoj Turskoj, u Anatoliji, pronađen je i tisuću godina mlađi grad od Jerihona, Catal Huyuk. Ovaj grad nije imao ulice, te se u kuće ulazilo preko krovova. Kuće su bile izgrađene od sušenih opeka (ćerpića) i drva. Ovdje se nalaze i najstarija do sada otkrivena...

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