Psychology of the Exceptional Child
15 February 2019
1. Four types of assessments are progress monitoring assessments, standardized tests, curriculum-based measurement, and response to intervention. The purpose of progress monitoring is to assess students' academic performance, to see the rate of improvement and to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Progress monitoring assessments are typically less biased than traditional standardized tests. Curriculum-based measurement, which entails direct and frequent samples of performance from the curriculum in which students are being instructed, is more useful for teachers than traditional testing and decreases the likelihood of cultural bias. (Hallahan, Daniel P.; Kauffman, James M.; Pullen, Paige C. Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education (Page 55). The specific benchmarks of progress are defined and assessed on a regular, ongoing basis in the classroom which provides a better way to evaluate the progress of learning disabled students. Standardized tests are often implemented to document students’ achievement of annual goals, as well as for issues of accountability. These tests allow schools to compare themselves to other schools in regards to student achievement. They also ensure accountability for teachers, and has the ability to inform instruction for educators. Lastly, RTI’s method for culturally unbiased is identification. This intervention assessment particularly for identifying students with reading disabilities. RTI models are supposed to rely on quality instruction before identification, they may prevent students from falling behind and thus being identified for special education (Klingner & Edwards, 2006). The purpose of the program is to provide a safety net for at-risk readers. In addition, RTI relies more heavily on curriculum-based measurement and less on standardized tests.
2. Two components of effective teaching are how we approach instruction and management of classroom behavior. In your classroom you want to have a welcoming atmosphere with acceptance of cultural differences. Teachers should be using instructional practices that are effective for students from a variety of different backgrounds. Individualization is an effective teaching strategy for teaching students who are struggling or have learning disabilities. Individualization is when a teacher can ensure that each student has instruction that reinforces material, is intensive, and frequent but with the right pacing. It is often delivered...