The male and female reproduction systems are quite different, but work together. The female reproductive system is made up of organs and hormones including the ovaries, oviducts (fallopian tubes), the uterus, fimbriae, endometrium, myrometrium, the cervix and the vagina. Females have two ovaries which produce ova also known as egg cells. They are located either sided of the uterus against the wall of the pelvis in a region known as the ovarian fossa. The ovaries are held in place by ligaments attached to the womb but are not directly attached to the rest of the female reproductive tract. The ovaries are connected to the uterus by a fallopian tube. It is lined with tiny hairs on cells which is called cilia. Every month the cilia waft a matured egg along inside the fallopian tube, or eggs tube and into the uterus. Each of the fallopian tubes ends in finger-like fimbriae, which move closer to the ovary at the time of ovulation. The myrometrium is made from smooth muscle and is the bulk of the uterine wall. The endometrium which is the lining of the uterus is made up of two layers. The first layer is a permanent basement membrane which produces decida. This surface layer increases monthly and sheds during menstruation. The cervix or neck of the uterus is a cylinder-shaped channel that connects the vagina and the uterus; it is made of cartilage covered by a smooth, moist tissue.
Different to the female, most of the male reproductive system is located outside of the body. These are the bladder, prostate, urethra, penis and testicle, the male reproductive system also contains the scrotum, vas deferens, epididymis, testis, tunica vaginalis and the seminal vesicle. The penis is the male organ involved in intercourse. The opening of the urethra, the tube that transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the penis. The scrotum is loose pouch of skin which hangs behind the penis and contains the testes and many other vessels and nerves. Males have two testes or testicles and they are responsible for producing testosterone which is needed to generate sperm. The vas deferens and the epididymis are internal organs and are sometimes called accessory organs. The epididymis is a long tube which stores sperm cells that have been produces in the testicles. The epididymis also matures the immature sperm and sends it to the vas deferens. The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube and it transports the mature sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation.
FSH is produced and released by the pituitary gland and works by stimulating the growth of new follicles as well as the production of the hormone oestrogen. More FSH occurs during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. This increase stimulates the growth and development of new follicles, one of which will develop into the ovulated egg
Luteinising hormone stimulates follicles in the ovaries to produce the female sex hormone, oestradiol. A large amount of LH released causes ovulation...