Prilosec, also known as omeprazole, is a compound that inhibits gastric acid secretion.
Omeprazole was first marketed in the United States in 1989 by Astra AB, now AstraZeneca,
under the brand name Losec. In 1990, at the request of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration,
the brand name Losec was changed to Prilosec to avoid confusion with the diuretic Lasix
(furosemide). The appearance is a peachy, grainy color, and it costs around $1.70 a pill.
Dangers and side effects include allergic reactions such as hives; difficulty breathing;
swelling of your face; low magnesium (dizziness, confusion, fast or uneven heart rate, jerking
muscle movements, muscle cramps, seizure), tachycardia, an abnormally rapid heart rate.
Furthermore, in clinical trials, omeprazole and esomeprazole have only rarely been associated
with hepatic injury. In large scale, long term trials , serum ALT elevations, (ALT is used to break
down food into energy. Normally, ALT levels in the blood are low. If your liver is damaged, it
will release more ALT into your blood and levels will rise. (ALT used to be called serum
glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, or SGPT), simply, the liquid part of your blood), occurred in less
than 1% of patients and at rates similar to those that occurred with placebo or comparator drugs.
A small number of cases of clinically apparent liver disease due to omeprazole or
esomeprazole have been published, the frequency of these cases probably being less than
1:100,000 users. A somewhat characteristic clinical phenotype has been described, with most
cases arising during the first 1 to 4 weeks of therapy and being marked by an acute
hepatocellular(pertaining or affecting liver cells)pattern of injury, with rapid recovery upon
withdrawal. Rash, fever and eosinophilia were rare, as is autoantibody formation.
Liver biopsy typically shows predominant centrilobular necrosis, suggestive of an acute,
toxic hepatic injury (acute hepatic necrosis); however, recurrence upon rechallenge has been
documented in several cases. In some instances, other organ involvement is prominent including
rhabdomyolysis, lactic acidosis, renal insufficiency or Stevens Johnson syndrome. In large case
series of drug induced liver injury, omeprazole and esomeprazole have accounted for few
instances of symptomatic acute liver injury and rare instances of acute liver failure.
The formula: C17H19N3O3S, with a molecular weight of 345 amu. The solubility is 0.25
mg/mL in water at 25°C. Dosage of omeprazole differentiates based on the complication of the
patient. For example, treatment of an Active Benign Gastric Ulcer is 40 gm once daily for 4 to 8
weeks. While the treatment of an Active Duodenal Ulcer is 20 gm once daily for 4 weeks.
More on Centrilobular Necrosis
Necrotic hepatocytes around central vein, usually due to ischemia, drugs or toxins. Common
finding at autopsy because it is associated with circulatory failure or shock, which is common
before all deaths. Distinguish from coagulative necrosis (hepatocytes are necrotic away from
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Centrilobular (left) versus coagulative necrosis (right)
The antibacterial uses for benzylpenicillin or just penicillin were discovered in 1928 by a Scottish
scientist named Alexander Fleming. Penicillin has a formula of C16H18N2O4S and a molecular weight
of 334 amu. The unique β-lactam ring is responsible for penicillins great antibacterial characteristics.
While penicillin was first discovered in the United Kingdom it would first be produced in the United
States as the United Kingdom's chemical industry was fully devoted to World War Two’s war effort.
Fleming and would travel to the United States where they would see if their pharmaceutical industry
would be interested in producing penicillin. Although they initially couldn’t find any luck, ten days after
the United States joined the war companies like Merck, Squibb, Lederle, and Pfizer would eventually start
producing penicillin to benefit the war effort.
The discovery of penicillin and its medical uses would ussher in the antibiotic age as it is still one of the
most used antibiotics and would lead to the discovery of many others. Penicillin was first tested on rats in
1940 to safely show its antibacterial characteristics. The rats were infected with the deadly Streptococci
but when they were given the penicillin they made quick recoveries. Penicillin is prescribed to a patient
when they are experiencing some kind of bacterial infection such as pneumonia, scarlet fever, or ear, skin,
and throat infections. Its astounding abilities in treating these bacterial infections was immediately taken
notice of as the first person to take would be a 41 year old police man who had cut the side of his mouth.
This cut would develop into a life threatening infection that was affecting his mouth, eyes, and lungs but a
few days after he was given penicillin he made a quick recovery. Following patients would experience
even greater results and the British and American armies both sought ways to make this available to their
soldiers. While penicillin is known to treat many bacterial infections it is also known to have plenty of
side effects including upset stomach, diarrhea, vomiting, skin rashes, flu-like symptoms.
The most common form of penicillin would be in a white oval but it can also be taken as a liquid.
Dosages of course vary between people and symptoms but usually if you are diagnosed with an infection
that can be treated with penicillin you will be given 500 milligrams two to four times a day until you
don’t have a fever for at least two days. If you were to miss taking a dosage it could severely hamper its
ability to treat the infection as it constantly needs a certain amount in your body at all times; if you were
to stop taking it all together without completely treating your infection it could potentially make it worse.
Due to penicillin being so widely available it is very inexpensive and 20 pills can be bought for just five
dollars. Penicillin is very insoluble as it can not dissolve more than 1 mg/100 gm of water at 55 degrees
“Alexander Fleming Discovery and Development of Penicillin - Landmark.” American Chemical Society,
“Penicillin V | Side Effects, Dosage, Uses & More.” Healthline, Healthline Media,
“Penicillin V Potassium: MedlinePlus Drug Information.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of