Running Header: REDUCE THE EFFECTS OF AUTOMOBILE PRODUCTION ON ENVIRONMENT USING METRICS
REDUCE THE EFFECTS OF AUTOMOBILE PRODUCTION ON ENVIRONMENT USING METRICS
Reduce the Effects of Automobile Production on Environment Using Metrics
According to carfax, the United State has three major automobile manufactures namely: (Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors), and a lot of l non-U.S.-based automobile assemblers, and a gigantic connection of parts and components suppliers. Jointly, the automobile industry manufactures and sells roughly about 15 million automobiles annually. The aggregate number of automobile sold in the year 1997 was about $500 billion, and sum job created by the industry was around 1 million.
The products of automobile industry's are: light and heavy trucks, and sport utility vehicles. Using various casting, stamping, molding, welding, painting, and forum processes produces these. Each of the performance has a distinctive set of environmental challenges.
Drivers of Environmental Performance Improvements:
Regulation is the major force of environmental change in the industry. Federal regulations that have effect on automobile manufacturing are the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990.
Environmental development defined by the automobile companies relates mainly to these regulations, governing -initiated voluntary efforts such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA ) 33/50 political program , and regional initiatives such as the Great Lakes persistent toxics (GLPT) program. Car manufacturer also commit themselves to befoulment prevention efforts to upgrade water materials and energy use efficiencies.
Pressure from foreign competition such as Toyota and Honda, accompany with the revolution of information technologies and new management method acting have also triggered sudden changes in automotive innovation and manufacturing methods. Total quality management, on time inventory control, synchronized engineering, and lean-production methods are few of the attack that has been employed by domestic manufacturers and suppliers top reserve competitiveness. Many of these schemes have reduced inputs at the production stage and bring about better production as well. Life-cycle management (Kainz et al., 1996) and design for environment practices (Ford Motor Company, 1998) are beginning to be used in the industry to meet regulatory and internal environmental goals.
The automotive industry's product (the vehicle) is also significantly regulated. Succeeding the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries oil ban that realize tripling of oil costs in the mid 1970s, the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975 was passed. The law reported least corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for cars and light trucks. CAFE measures are assessed for auto and light...