Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
· single nucleotide where the base differs. The base where the nucleotide differs.
· Some measureable amount of the population that have the specific ‘mutation’
· Mutation is just variation
· Purines are very common to convert into another purine
· White Anglo-Saxon protestants. Slang term for a social class of white Americans of British protestant ancestry.
SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS:
· The utilitarian procedure for discerning the morally right course of action is theoretically simple: determine which action _____. MAXIMIZES WELL-BEING
· Deoxyribose differs from Ribose in that… IS ONE OF THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF DNA
· Polymerase: enzyme that makes new DNA from old DNA
· Double helix is coiled. The helix needs to be unwound. Topoisomerase relaxes the coil and Helicase unzips the DNA. The nucleotides are now exposed. DNA polymerase uses the single strand as a template and makes copies of the complementary strand.
Nucleotide: phosphate sugar base
dNTP: contains for types of nucleotides (AGCT)
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): DNA replication in a test tube
DNA strand. Need to know the sequence at each end. Heat it up (typically 95 degrees Celsius) Add primer find a sequence to bind to (short sequences). Reduce temperature (50 degrees Celsius) Strands anneal (come back together. Molecules are more stable as a helix. Add a cocktail that has the dna polymerase and dNTPs. Polymerase attaches to the strand and starts making a new strand of DNA (in the reverse direction). Do it again, it doubles each time.
When proteins are heated up, they denature (break up). Every time you go through the steps, do not need to add more dNTPS, but need to add more polymerase because they denature. The polymerase latches onto a replication fork where a double stranded dna is exposed.
Friday 2-4 Q&A Test Review Session
Test 1 available on 9/25-9/27
Why would we want to sequence genomes?
-Trace back lineage of organisms/create an evolutionary family tree
-To find out what parts of the sequence are used for
-What makes you different from other people. Why are living things different from each other?
-Trying to find out the unknown sequence of the genome (what are the base pairs of the genome that are unknown)
-di-deoxy sequencing method
-Now there are more automations on this process-> fluorescently created di-deoxy to make more automated sequence
-Reads: when you sequence a fragment
-Take the fragments, sequence at random, and see where they overlap. You then assemble overlapping fragments into a genome
Sequence Coverage Problems:
- “Coverage”: have to sequence the genome many times at random. “rain on a sidewalk or balls in a bin”
-However, the genome is not random. It is a 3D structure with chemical reactions. Some are easier to sequence, others are harder
-Repeated elements are harder to sequence
-Can spend certain amount of time and effort on parts...