Reynolds Experiment Essay

2331 words - 10 pages

It was in 1883 when Osborne Reynolds, a famous scientist and engineer tried to experiment on the relationship between the stability of fluid motion and the transition to turbulence. His final apparatus consisted of a glass-sided tank, 6 feet long, 18 inches deep and 18 inches wide. Inside it was a glass tube with `a trumpet mouth of varnished wood, great care being taken to make the surface of the wood continuous with that of the glass'. On the right-hand side, the tube was connected to an iron pipe equipped with a valve which could be controlled by means of a long lever. On the left-hand side is the device for introducing a streak of dye into the trumpet, while a float and dial indicated ...view middle of the document...

If the value of NRe is below 2100, it is said to be laminar and if Nre is greater than or equal to 4000, it is turbulent. Between these phases is the transition state (2100 ≥ NRe ≥ 4000). At NRe ≥ 10, 000 the flow is also said to be completely turbulent.According to McCabe (1993) and Geankoplis (1993) laminar flow (Fig. 2.3a) is characterized by the absence of lateral or macroscopic mixing of adjacent fluid layers, cross currents nor eddies or swirls. The particles of the fluid are moving in definite and observable paths or streamlines (Daugherty, 1999). Meanwhile, the velocity profiles of laminar flow in pipe would indicate that the velocity increases from the wall to the center (White, 1999). Daugherty (1989) mentioned that Reynolds was able to observe that at a low flow rate or when the velocity of the water in the tube was small, the liquid dye was seen as a straight line throughout the length of the tube. Geankoplis (1993) declared that the dye pattern was regular. It formed one line of stream.The fluid has a fluctuating nature due to the presence of eddies, lateral or macroscopic mixing and cross currents (Geankoplis, 1993). Fluids in turbulent flow (Fig. 2.3c) consist of eddies of various sizes coexisting in the flowing stream. Large eddies continually flow, break into smaller ones then eventually disappears. McCabe (1993) pointed out that turbulent flow may also be generated either as wall turbulence or free turbulence. Wall turbulence results from contact of the flowing stream with solid boundaries while free turbulence results from the contact between two layers of fluids at different velocities. Daugherty (1989) described the pattern as a wavy and gradually disappearing as the dye spreads uniformly throughout the entire cross-section of the stream of water.When the flow is neither laminar nor turbulent, it is said to be in a transition flow (Fig. 2.3b). White (1999) stated that transition flow depends upon many effects such as wall roughness and fluctuations in the inlet stream (White, 1999). McCabe (1993) and Daugherty (1989) further declared that the transition flow is dependent on the entrance tube conditions, the apparatus details and the distance from the entrance.Fig. 2.3. Different Flow RegimesThis experiment aims to identify flow regimes at different flow rates following classical Reynolds' experiment; and to verify if visual observation of different flow regimes matches with the computed Reynolds' number.MATERIALS AND METHODSThe Reynolds' apparatus in the laboratory was used for this experiment. A water supply was secured to ensure that the water level was maintained. A hose was used to fill the water reservoir.The Reynolds' apparatus was tested for leaks and was thoroughly cleaned. Then, the water reservoir was filled to the overflow level. One to two liters of 0.4 M methylene blue was prepared and placed on the dye reservoir. Next, the bubbles in the glass tube were removed and the needle was adjusted. Tap water...

Other Essays On Reynolds Experiment

adadwq sdadasd Essay

504 words - 3 pages Dengan Smarty Ring, Anda bisa membaca notifikasi di handphone Anda melalui jariKetika semua orang membicarakan kecanggihan Google Glass atau smartwatch, tak banyak orang yang berpikir bahwa sesuatu yang ukurannya lebih kecil dari itu juga bisa berguna. Ide itulah yang diusung Smarty Ring, yang memperlihatkan semua notifikasi handphone Anda sehingga Anda tidak harus mengangkat handphone Anda untuk mengetahui apa yang terjadi. Smarty Ring, yang

commerce Essay

519 words - 3 pages Related text: American History X Comment by George Moulos: You can't analyze a film the same as a book.If you re doing film you have to do film techniques, not literary techniques.-Derek Vinyard after going to prison and learning that his prejudice stemmed from ignorance he teaches his brothers Danny vineyard that his fascism and racism was wrong and ignorant.Movie Summary:Derek Vineyard begins in the movie as a troubled young man who due to his

Miniscribe Corporation

1685 words - 7 pages EXECUTIVE SUMMARYTerry Johnson, a native of Longmont, Colorado established the MiniScribe Corporation, a disk drive manufacturing company that would grow to be one of the largest producers and distributors of disk drives for personal computers in America.This report focuses on relevant facts and figures in the evaluation of MiniScribe's liquidity, profitability, and overall stability aiming to determine whether or not maintaining its stocks on

dream world

384 words - 2 pages Dream worldThe warmth of the blanket upon me keeps my body safe and relaxed. My arms and legs stop trying to interact with this physical world. Peacefully, they give up and rest. My head falls further into the softness of my pillow. My eyes are closed slightly and my mind. I use my intuition to see through the world. I dream…Suddenly, the deafening noise of the alarm clock woke me up with a startling jolt. It seemed as though I had fallen

the adverb clause.ppt

754 words - 4 pages USE OF ARTICLES (a, an, the)What did these words originally mean?A/AN is an old word meaning `one'(in many European languages the ordinary word for `one' is used to translate English `a' or `an' and you can also sometimes use Cantonese `yat go' in the same way)THE is an old word meaning `this' or `that'These words no longer have their full original meaning but if you remember that meaning it can sometimes help you to decide which word you need to

Highfyr

537 words - 3 pages Breanna PonceMia Sandoval Dominick KlingbyllAugust 26, 2013Block 2The Effect of Pineapple on Jell-OBACKGROUND:Protein was a big part of this gelatin lab. Protein is a multipurpose macro molecule. Gelatin is a protein made out of Jell-O, we used Jell-O in our lab. The students had to put pineapple in the gelatin to see if it will form. The enzymes in the pineapple prevented that from happening. Enzymes are a biological catalyst. Bromelain is the

merits and demerits of mordern gadgets

418 words - 2 pages "MORDERNELECTRONICGADGETS"IntroductionModern gadgets have made us complete slaves to machines. There is no work which cannot be done without the assistance of machines and there is not a single area of human activity where machines don't have to be used. No one can deny the fact that gadgets have not only simplified our lives but also made them more comfortable and luxurious. If electricity fails, life for each one of us comes to a standstill as

Case Study Dr Harold Wolf

614 words - 3 pages COMPREHENSIVE PROBLEMDr. Harold Wolf of Medical Research Corporation (MRC) was thrilled with the response he had received from drug companies for his latest discovery, a unique electronic stimulator that reduces the pain from arthritis. The process had yet to pass rigorous Federal Drug Administration (FDA) testing and was still in the early stages of development, but the interest was intense. He received the three offers described below this

Personal Explorations Paper

957 words - 4 pages Personal Explorations PaperLee Ashton Brooks7 December 2013PSY-110HAProfessor MooreOver the course of 7 modules, different personality aspects of mine have been tested and evaluated and have even revealed things about myself that I was not aware of. The surveys and questions that I answered dug deep into decisions and choice I make, how I think and how I feel to reveal certain characteristics about myself, some of which I was aware of and others

Pooooooped

2015 words - 9 pages The Open-Field System .Three field rotations helped keep fields fertile traditional village rights reinforced traditional patterns of farming.Peasants were exploited in a number of ways, with those in Eastern Europe generally the worst off.The Agricultural RevolutionThe use of more complex systems of crop rotation increased the amount of land under cultivation.Grain crops were alternated with nitrogen-storing crops.The open-field system was

Chevron Communication In Business

2374 words - 10 pages COMMUNICATIONS IN BUSINESS 100Name: Anonymous 2Student Number: 12345678Email: anonym2@mail.auCompany: Chevron CorporationTitle: Corporate Social Responsibility: An Analysis of ChevronOther Details: Semester 1 2014, Bentley Campus(Word Count: 1568)IntroductionMultinational Energy Companies, like Chevron Corporation, have a broad and significant social, economic and environmental impact on the globe and as such are in a position to influence the

Similar Papers

Polymer Mechanichemistry Essay

265 words - 2 pages plain, it was understood that using mechanical force on the bonds, it breaks the polymer chain, generating a spontaneous response. Other results as followed when changing the physical force are the change of color (stretching) and the effect of the polymer glowing. Curious and eager to find out more about the behavior of the polymers, another experiment was conducted with elastomers, a synthetic or natural polymer having elastic properties, such as

The Changing Essay

288 words - 2 pages One hand Reaches out And pulls a lost soul from harm While a thousand more go unspoken for They say what good have you done By saving just this one It's like whispering a prayer In the fury of a storm And I hear them saying you'll never change things And no matter what you do it's still the same thing But it's not the world that I am changing I do this so this world will know That it will not change me This heart Still believes The love and mercy

The Importance Of The Act Of Reading” By Paulo Freire Essay

1423 words - 6 pages 4BredahlHarlie Cheyenne BredahlProfessor Peter EppsComposition II08 September 2014I"The Importance of the Act of Reading" by Paulo Freire, describes the importance of the act of reading beyond numerous experiences in his life as a child, a teenager, and an adult. Freire begins his article by taking readers back to where he was born, in his home city Recife, Brazil. He uses very itemized imagery to describe the trees, the house and the atmosphere

American Dream Essay

765 words - 4 pages The American Dream is the quintessence of a comfortable victorious life, which often includes material prosperity, a house, an improved life for one's kids, and sometimes; it means achieving any goals one may have regardless of what class he or she comes from (O'Connor, Sabato and, Yanus 19). In recent years, it has become more difficult to achieve the American Dream; this is mainly due various issues involving the relationship between the