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Rome To Renissance West Civ Final

2893 words - 12 pages

Western Civilization Final Section I 1) Rome enjoyed many years of lavishness and magnificence. However, Rome was not unaccustomed to civil unrest and political upheaval. The most common occurrences of the second century were war, revolt, rivalry between dictators and assassinations. Slave uprisings were common. A revolt of some 70,000 slaves managed to defeat a small army in Sicily in 134 B.C.E.Nevertheless, the revolt was stopped by subsequent Roman armies. the most famous of such uprisings was a slave rebellion led by a man named Spartacus, a trained gladiator, from 73-71 B.C.E.Years earlier, conflict between the upper class of Roman society began to unravel. Two brothers, Tiberius and ...view middle of the document...

Gauis was murdered, like his brother, along with thousands of his followers.After Gracchi's death two military leaders emerged as rulers of the state. The first was Marius who stayed in office for seven consecutive years, accomplished nothing. With Maruis' death the aristocracy took over and elected Sulla, another military commander. Sulla was appointed dictator in 82 B.C.E for an unlimited amount of time. He proceeded to do away with all persons who stood in opposition of him. He extended the power of the aristocracy and discharged many powers of the tribune. Sulla ruled for three years, tired of the job, and retired.Before he retired he left power to the selfish Roman aristocracy. This action brought forth two prominent military rulers.Pompey ( 106-48 B.C.E.) and Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.E.) rose and together sought control of the government. Eventually Pompey and Caesar became mortal enemies. Each sought support by popular vote from Roman citizens. Pompey won popularity as a conqueror of Syria and Palestine. Caesar channeled his energy to the northeast into a series of take overs against the Gauls. While Caesar was away, a number of rebellions occurred in 52 B.C.E. The Roman senate turned to Pompey for help. Pompey took office and then took actions to have Caesar labeled an enemy of the state. He intended to cut off all of Caesar's political power. This action proved to be a fatal mistake for Pompey. Hearing of the news, Caesar turned his troops toward Rome.Pompey fled to the east and was eventually murdered by supporters of Caesar.Once in power, Caesar bent the senate to his every desire. In 46 B.C.E, he became dictator for ten years and he achieved full power of the senate to make war and peace. In essence, he essentially had control of Rome. Caesar's demise came about as rumors spread that he was to make himself king. Fear of this led to Caesar's assassination on the Ides of March in 44 B.C.E.by conspirators led by Brutus and Cassius, Romans detested kings.By the first century B.C.E, Rome was the dominant force in Western Europe. It had enveloped Hellenistic, Greek, territory and destroyed the North African civilization of Carthage bringing the Mediterranean area into the fold of Roman rule. These actions brought Hellenistic institutions and ideas to the Roman world. For years Roman greatness was firmly established in these traits: respect for tradition, political order and military mastery. These qualities together with Greek philosophy and all the attractions of the Greek culture contributed to much that was grand in Roman society. Roman culture exploded with majestic substance. The conquest of Carthage not only enlarged the Roman empire, it led to new territories in Sicily, Africa and Spain.This brought in vast quantities of Sicilian, African grain and Spanish silver. A huge increase in slavery came about from prisoners of war, thereby enabling agriculture production to soar. With economic change came social change. The introduction of...

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