Essay On Rummel's Five-stage Model

1106 words - 5 pages

The best way I can explain the perspectives from the readings is to break down some of the examples included in the text. For example, below are the models mentioned in the book that were "developed based on studies of a wide range of conflicts including broad societal and international conflicts and organizations and small groups and conflicts and relationships. They describe the emergence and progression of conflicts over the long-term and give us important insights into the origins and management of conflict." (p. 75)

Stage Models
Rummel's five-stage model suggested that conflicts passed through five sequential stages in his Five-Stage Model:
1. Initially, conflict is latent: The parties hold different dispositions or attitudes that carry the potential for conflict. Differences and values, objectives, and outlooks lay the groundwork for future conflict.

2. During the initiation stage, some triggering event causes the parties to act. At this point, the potential differences become the basis for conflict.

3. After the conflict has been initiated, the conflict moves into a stage of open conflict Force in this third stage, parties assess each other's capabilities and willingness to use force, threats, and rewards, and sometimes they engage in attack and defense. During this stage, the parties confront the issues before them as they try to reach some settlement.

4. The settlement leads to a balance of power stage in which the participants come to understand the sequences of the resolution and learn to live with the outcomes. This stage is characterized by the set expectations of individuals and may last for some time until significant changes in circumstances attitudes or goals arise.

5. Such evolving changes lead to a disruption stage during which parties realize that circumstances are right for once again the emergence of potential conflict and eventual confrontation if a new triggering event occurs.

Pondy's Model articulated a similar five-stage model of the emergence and development of the conflict in the organizational context:
1. Conflict is latent when conflicting issues such as insufficient resources or divergent goals or rise in the organization but has not yet been recognized by parties.

2. When latent issues reach the awareness of one or more parties in the perceived conflict stage. Ponti also notes that a conflict can also be perceived when no Layton conflict exists. This occurs when parties misunderstand each other's positions.
3. Parties that enter a stage of the felt conflict in which the conflict changes one party's feelings for the other. And this stage the conflict becomes emotionally charged as parties feel anxiety, mistrust or hostility towards others.

4. Manifest conflict occurs when parties act on the perceived and felt differences.

5. Finally, the conflict centers on an aftermath stage in which new relationships and arrangements are formed as a result of how the manifest conflict is handl...

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