Science Cheat Sheet About Cells Science Cheat Sheet

880 words - 4 pages

CELLS:
1. PLASMA MEMBRANE/ CELL MEMBRANE
Structure- a bilipid membranous layer composed of proteins and carbohydrates.  It is fluid like.
Function - the cell membrane separates the cell from its external environment, and is selectively permeable (controls what gets in and out).  It protects the cell and provides stability.
Proteins are found embedded within the plasma membrane, with some extending all the way through in order to transport materials.
Carbohydrates are attached to proteins and lipids on the outer lipid layer.
2. CYTOPLASM
Structure - The jelly-like substance composed of mainly water and found between the cell membrane and nucleus.  The cytoplasm makes up most of the "body" of a cell and is constantly streaming.
Function - Organelles are found here and substances like salts may be dissolved in the cytoplasm.
3. NUCLEUS
Structure - The largest organelle in the cell. It is dark and round, and is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope/membrane.  In spots the nuclear envelope fuses to form pores which are selectively permeable.  The nucleus contains genetic information (DNA) on special strands called chromosomes. 
Function - The nucleus is the "control centre" of the cell, for cell metabolism and reproduction.
THE FOLLOWING ORGANELLES ARE FOUND IN BOTH PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS.
1. "ER" OR ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
The Endoplasmic Reticulum is a network of membranous canals filled with fluid.  They carry materials throughout the cell.  The ER is the "transport system" of the cell.
There are two types of ER: rough ER and smooth ER.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is lined with ribosomes and is rough in appearance and smooth endoplasmic reticulum contains no ribosomes and is smooth in appearance.
2. RIBOSOMES
Ribosomes are small particles which are found individually in the cytoplasm and line the membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum.  Ribosomes produce protein.  They could be thought of as "factories” in the cell.
3. GOLGI BODY / APPARATUS
Golgi bodies are stacks of flattened membranous stacks (they look like pancakes!).  The Golgi Body temporarily stores protein which can then leave the cell via vesicles pinching off from the Golgi.
4. LYSOSOMES
Lysosomes are small sac-like structures surrounded by a single membrane and containing strong digestive enzymes which when released can break down worn out organelles or food.  The lysosome is also known as a suicide sac.
5. MITOCHONDRIA
The mitochondria are round "tube-like" organelles that are surrounded by a double membrane, with the inner membrane being highly folded.  the mitochondria are often referred to as the "powerhouse" of the cell.  the mitochondria releases food energy from food molecules to be used by the cell.  This process is called respiration.  Some cells (muscle cells) require more energy than other cells and so would have many more...

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