Similarities Concepts And Categories Psychology Essay

2913 words - 12 pages

Why did evidence of adult use of thematic relations require a change in theories about the mental organisation of conceptual knowledge? Explain how Funnell's (2001) Levels of Meaning model can accommodate this change.
Word count: 2,482 (not including references)
Upon looking into literature regarding similarities, categorisation and the processes used by humans to comprehend similarities and form categories, it is the general consensus that features are the main component we as humans look at when looking into similarities and categories. Tvsersky’s contrast model (1977) states that the more similar two objects are the more features they share and vice versa. Other theories such as the Prototype theory states that we as humans make mental prototypes of objects/entities by extracting the most typical features of them and creating a prototype which is then used to match future objects/entities in order to classify them as similar or not. Moreover, the Exemplar theory goes even further to say that a prototype is not needed. It states that because a car shares more features with a van than a bike does, the car and the van are deemed more similar. Although these all differ slightly, they all have a common theme which is that they all state a need for features, whether that is perceptual, biological or functional features (taxonomic). They do not allow for a thematic processing system to be a factor in how we perceive similarities and categories. This essay will state why using similarities in explaining categories may be weak but at the same time necessary. This essay will also show how there must be two systems for our memory by giving evidence from patients with semantic dementia. This paper will also produce evidence which shows that adults use a thematic process as well as taxonomic processing in relation to similarities and categorisation. Finally this paper will show how Funnell’s (2001) levels of meaning model can be house the change for future literature in similarities and categorisation to include a thematic component as well as a taxonomic.
Goldstone (1994) presents arguments that debate on the appropriateness and the relevance of using similarity of objects in order to categorise them. In his work, Goldstone says that there are those who argue that similarity cannot be used to categorise objects. It is argued that similarity is too flexible to be used to categorise. Additionally, it is argued that similarity is like a blank which needs to be filled. For example, we would be unable to categorise the sports football and basketball without a definition of what a sport is. This implies that an object cannot be classified until there is an aspect which is considered in order to carry out the categorisation. Moreover, it is further argued that similarity is dependent on a context and that it is not a unitary phenomenon. Goldstone (1994) posits that similarity is too flexible and that it cannot present a solid ground for categorisation with...

RELATED

Blockbuster Films and Psychological Concepts - Psychology/University of Houston - Research paper

2223 words - 9 pages Free Blockbuster Film Running Head: BLOCKBUSTER FILM’S AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CONCEPTS The Presence of Psychology: How a Blockbuster Film Incorporated Psychological Concepts Amanda Lozenich University of Houston Project Description: For this project I chose to analyze a Blockbuster Film for psychological concepts. By watching 12 Angry Men my goal was to examine the meaning behind particular scenes and how they could portray a social psychology concept. I

Similarities and Differences in Biological Mechanisms Between Schizophrenia and Depression - University of Hertfordshire - Essay

3349 words - 14 pages Free one another due to having many distinguishable features. Overall, depression and schizophrenia are two long-term brain disorders with a distinct criterion which is used for diagnosis. However, some may argue that the features of these two illnesses can overlap in certain areas. The underlying biological mechanisms of both schizophrenia and depression have various similarities and differences which this essay will explore. Eugen Bleuler (1911/1950

Social similarities between the Great Gatsby and our current society - High School - Essay

688 words - 3 pages Nicolaou | 3 Giorgia Nicolaou Mrs.Bonnell AP ELC, Period: 1 1 September 2017 The Social Similarities of the Great Gatsby and Our Current Society The Great Gatsby may have been written in 1925, however there are many social aspects presented throughout the lives of the characters that are very similar in American society today. Our society’s nature has said to have evolved from the past decade with more freedom and technological advances, yet our

The End of Stigma: Anthropology, Psychology and Sociology - Anthropology, Psychology and Sociology - Essay

2142 words - 9 pages Free conditions to face negative beliefs and attitudes. Due to these false and negative beliefs, many issues are caused for the people who suffer from these conditions/disorders. Stigma also leads to discrimination. ​Discrimination is the behaviour that results from this negative stereotype. ​ Discrimination is the ​the unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things. ​Discrimination may be obvious and direct, such as someone

Frankenstein: How there are more similarities than differences between Frankenstein and the creature - Valley Christian High School - English - Essay

933 words - 4 pages Alexa Neal Visual Art Conservatory 25 February 2018 Art Museum Visit Essay For my art gallery/museum visit assignment, I wanted to travel to someplace that was one of a kind, and not just any average exhibit, which is usually comprised of similar art styles in a more classical era. So, after much deliberation and scrolling through various museums near my house, I decided on The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art(MOMA), one of the largest museums

Psychology of Ancient Philosophers and a Hole in Aristotle's Argument on Psychology - Randolph-Macon College Philosophy - Essay

2157 words - 9 pages Free Psychology of Ancient Philosophers from Parmenides to Aristotle and a Hole in Aristotle’s Argument on Psychology Regarding Hypothetical Comatose Patients For thousands of years, philosophers have debated the relation between body and soul. The ancient philosophers built upon one another’s ideas, expressing multiple ideologies that still hold relevance in the debate on philosophical psychology to this day. The following essay will examine the

How useful are personality tests in measuring personality? - Personality and Individual Differences - Psychology - Essay

1881 words - 8 pages 9 THE USEFULNESS AND APPLICABILITY OF PERSONALITY MEASUREMENT Abstract Various tests have been implemented in the past few decades for personality measurement, however, which ones are the most useful to psychologists? This essay analyses and compares two personality measurement tests: the Myer-Briggs Type Indicator and the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised test, which is a Big Five Factor Model test. Multiple studies have been conducted

Stress in College Athletes and Non-Athletes - Psychology - APA Style Essay

1327 words - 6 pages Free 1 Running head: Stress in College Athletes and Non-Athletes 3 Stress in College Athletes and Non-Athletes Stress in College Athletes and Non-Athletes Lakisha Camacho PSYC104v01 or v02: Introduction to Psychology II Dr. Pipitone College of Mount Saint Vincent February 24, 2019 Our group decided to focus on the stress of college student-athletes and non-athletes. Stress can be defined as emotional levels that affect an individual's mind

Focus Paper on Stages of Grief and Parenting Styles - Psychology 2012 - Essay

1455 words - 6 pages types of parenting styles, everyone will experience both these concepts every day in their life, either being themselves or a close one. Writing this paper showed me how to understand people better, and learn what they’re going through. Either something’s are going on with their parents or if they feel like they’re losing a loved one. Either way it made me a more of an understanding person and I’m thankful for that. Jose Oliveira Psychology 2012

biopscyhosocial effect of exercise and social interaction on depression - Psychology 601 at York - essay

3649 words - 15 pages Free 17 EXERCISE AND SOCIAL INTERACTION SELF-STUDY The Effects of Consistent Exercise and Social Interaction on Depression: A Self Study In Partial Requirements of the Masters of Arts in Clinical Psychology Abstract As a student who has struggled with depression due to stress related events, and currently is completing a Master’s of Arts degree while working full-time with three young children, the potential for increases in depression is very high

The Great Gatsby--Similarities Between Gatsby and Tom - English - Essay

1230 words - 5 pages Tirzah Harms Mr. Heuschel HEIII Period 11 29 May, 2019 Similarities in The Great Gatsby Characters ​¨It is understanding that gives us an ability to have peace. When we understand the other fellow's viewpoint, and he understands ours, then we can sit down and work out our differences.” (Harry Truman)​ ​says Harry Truman, 33rd United States President. This quote is food for thought, showing that understanding others can lead to a much greater

Describe and compare classical and instrumental conditioning in their effectiveness in explaining learning - BSc Psychology with Cognitive Neuroscience - Essay

1143 words - 5 pages psychologists still use today in order to explain learning. Through the works of Ivan Pavlov and Edward Thorndike the concepts of classical and instrumental conditioning were formed. Both theories have sufficient evidence to support them and explain learning in an appropriate and understanding way which can be observed and measured empirically. Furthermore, these findings have been applied to real life settings in order to aid human learning and enhance

Explain the concepts of religious language as analogy and symbol - university - essay

1157 words - 5 pages Explain the concepts of religious language as analogy and symbol (30) Language is an extremely limited way of describing God. When we begin to interpret God through words we start to anthropomorphise his metaphysical being, this results in different perceptions of God which shouldn't occur as something which is beyond our understanding cannot be 'this' neither can it be 'that'. Some people believe that expressing religion through symbol is a

Romeo and Juliet v.s. Gnomeo and Juliet: Similarities and Differences - English 1 - essay

410 words - 2 pages Paige Adams Honors English 1 Ms. Bullard May 30, 2018 Romeo and Juliet v.s. Gnomeo and Juliet: Similarities and Differences Shakespeare is a very well- known writer. His literature is read all around the world. One of his most well known piece of literature is ​Romeo and Juliet​. This story is a tragic story of the feuds between two families that lead to the death of two “star- crossed” lovers. There are many story, movies, etc, that are based

Discuss idiographic and nomethetic approach in psychology - Psychology - Essay

1011 words - 5 pages Discuss idiographic and nomothetic approaches in psychology. (16 Marks) The idiographic approach in psychology, derives from the Greek ‘idios’ meaning ‘private and personal’. The idiographic approach attempts to describe the nature of an individual. This approach studies people as unique entities, each with their own subjective experiences, motivations and value. The idiographic approach is associated with methods such as case studies e.g