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Sociology Essay: Gender Discrimination In The Business World The Glass Ceiling

2535 words - 11 pages

Gender discrimination against women is not only common in North America, Europe and Australia but is a repetitive pattern globally (Johnson & Lee, Mandel 2012). This paper composes of extensive research on the subject of gender inequalities and how the glass ceiling phenomenon effects women as they are generally paid less, ask for less promotions and are perceived to be psychologically weaker (Acker 2009, Allison & Yap 2009, Johnson & Lee 2012, Mandel 2012, McDonald & Kmec 2010). The essay looks into some recent sociological issues on the role of women and the hardships they have to overcome due to gender bias which in turn restricts them from achieving the same status-quo as ...view middle of the document...

Central Research QuestionsMany of the articles revolved around the same type of questions and hypothesises. For example, three out of five of the research articles questioned whether or not the "Glass ceiling" really exists for women, which prevents them from getting highly paid roles amid their work force. This question allowed further research in correspondence to wages and whether or not men and women are being paid equally, disregarding any forms of promotion (Johnson & Lee 2012, Yap & Alison 2009, Acker 2009). Another common question was whether there were gender gaps in promotion rates and employer-change rates (Johnson & Lee 2012, Mandel 2012) which ultimately allowed researchers to look into a wider depth of information and examine the promotion frequencies within the companies. Not only did the researchers identify the promotion gap differences but were also keen on analyzing whether or not men and women were being rewarded equally in the case that one was promoted. Moreover, some articles primarily focused on why women were discriminated against their male counterparts and the effects of the discrimination which will be discussed later in the paper.Research MethodsThis paper consists of three research articles that tied back to various types of theoretical approaches which resulted in many of the same outcomes. Theoretical perspectives are ideal for research mechanisms as the assumptions direct researchers to focus more on the frameworks and observations (Crossman 2007). By digging further into the theoretical perspectives, it can be seen that this paper consists of mainly the conflict perspective and feminist theory as men perceive themselves to be "elite" compared to women. For example, J. Acker looks at particular local organizations with ongoing practical activities. The researcher digs further into organizations that are not only located in the United states but other countries as well which include, Great Britain, Norway, and Sweden. These countries reflect similar inequality issues within their organizations, including glass ceiling patterns, similar to those in the US (Acker 2009) . Likewise, two other articles composed their studies in similar countries which ultimately resulted in many of the same outcomes. For example, the articles studied various types of surveys including the U.S National Longitudinal Survey in order to compare and analyze data as well as answer some research questions about information on job matching processes since this was a direct measure of non researching and work group sex-composition (Kmec & McDonald 2010). In contrast, the remaining three research articles took methodological approaches and sampled various companies themselves as well as observed and examined how these firms treat men and women interchangeably (Johnson & Lee 2012). Some articles conducted their research solely based on individuals within one company (Yap & Alison 2009) whereas others examined a nationally...

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