Stimulants. This Paper Talks About How And What Stimulants Are Used For. Florida State Resaerch

1223 words - 5 pages

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Stimulants
1. THE HISTORY OF THE DRUG : Stimulants
Stimulants are drugs that stimulate the central nervous system to increase levels of mental and
physical energy and alertness and produce an elevated mood. Which is also known as
psychostimulants. “The first amphetamine was synthesized by the German pharmacologist L.
Edeleano in 1887”. Later, in 1910 it was tested on animals and then in 1927 Gordon Alles
self-administered amphetamine and recorded his findings. They could be inhaled or taken orally
and as an effect it reduced fatigue, made alert, and gave confidence. The original purpose of this
drug was “Nonprescription medication in drug stores across the us. The Benzedrine inhaler,
marketed for nasal congestion.” Because of lack of restriction, amphetamines were sold to treat
variety of ailments: obesity, alcoholism,depression, schizophrenia, morphine and codeine
addiction, heart block and head injuries. Stimulants are self medicated over the counter drugs.
Meaning you can buy them at local pharmacy or drug stores. The most common drugs in this
category are caffeine, nicotine, cocaine and methamphetamine. Caffeine and nicotine are
classified as secondary stimulants because, unlike drugs such as amphetamines and cocaine, they
affect the sympathetic nervous system more than the central nervous system. Unlike stimulants
that are abused for recreational purposes, caffeine and nicotine produce only an increased energy
level but not a feeling of intoxication or delusional thoughts or behavior. Caffeine is the most
commonly used stimulant and most widely consumed drug in the United States, and is found in
coffee, tea, soft drinks, energy drinks, chocolate, and drugs. Caffeine may also be an ingredient
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in pain relievers, diet pills, and cold and allergy medications.Caffeine belongs to a family of
drugs called methylxanthines, and it works by disrupting the action of a neurotransmitter called
adenosine. Since caffeine is usually consumed in food, it normally enters the body through the
gastrointestinal system, passing from the intestines into circulating blood, which carries it
throughout the body. Another widely ingested stimulant is the nicotine consumed in tobacco
products. Nicotine acts mostly as a stimulant in new users, but long-term users claim that it
relaxes them. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that approximately 9.2% of
teenagers reported smoking cigarettes in 2014, a decrease from 15.8% in 2011. The use of
hookahs has increased in the same time period from 4.1% to 9.4%. The use of multiple tobacco
products by teenagers is reported to increase the risk for nicotine dependence and is predictive of
use in adulthood. Nicotine withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, irritability, insomnia,
depression, headaches, mood swings, difficulty concentrating, and changes in appetite. Cocaine
Cocaine is one of the strongest and shortest-acting stimulants and has a high potential for abuse
owing to its euphoric and habit-forming...

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