Assignment On Study Guide For Bio

722 words - 3 pages

Element - a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances and cannot be converted into another substance Ex: Carbon Atom - smallest unit of an element Atoms are composed of neutrons (no charge) protons (positive charge) electrons (negative charge) The mass number of an atom is the total number of the protons and neutrons in its nucleus Protons and neutrons cluster in the center to form the atomic nucleus Atomic number - number of protons in the nucleus (defines each element) Every atom of an element has the same number of protons Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes A few isotopes are radioactive which means the nuclei spontaneously break apart Electrons are enclosed in a electron shell and the farther away the shell is from the nucleus, the higher the energy of the electrons When an atom gets excited by heat or light, electrons jump from a lower energy to a higher energy shell and return disposing extra energy as light 2. 2 - How Do Atoms Interact To Form Molecules A molecule is two or more atoms held by chemical bonds An atom will not react with other atoms when it's outermost electron shell is full (inept atoms Ex:helium) An atom will react with other atoms if the outermost electron shell is partially full (hydrogen) Atoms usually have equal number of protons and electrons An atom that has acquired an overall positive or negative charge is no longer called an atom and is called a ion Opposite charged ions attract each other forming ionic bonds Covalent Bonds Nonpolar - electrons are shared equally between atoms Ex: occurs between two hydrogen atoms in hydrogen gas Polar - electrons are shared unequally among atoms Ex: occurs between hydrogen and oxygen atoms of a water molecule Free radicals- atoms and molecules with unfilled outer shells Hydrogen Bond - attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen and a slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen located in a nearby molecule ex: hydrogen bonding in water Hydrogen bonds causes cohesion which is the tendency of molecules of a single type to stick together The water's cohesiveness allows it to be pulled upward when evaporating Surface tension - tendency fo...

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