Study Notes On The Structure And Function Of Various Groups Of Molecules Including Proteins, Carbohydrates, And Lipids (Fats)

751 words - 4 pages

a. -A protein is a polymer of amino acids-Amino acids form a particular sequence-R group varies between amino acids and determined type of amino acid-Primary structure of a protein is it's unique sequence and number of amino acids-Determined by genetics-Determines other structures peptide bonds-Secondary structure of a protein is the three-dimensional shape including the various folding and coilings of the polypeptide chain-Result of hydrogen bonds at regular intervals along the polypeptide backbone-Folding produces a spiral Alpha Helix associated with globular proteins-Folding may produce a beta-pleated sheet associated with fibrous proteins-Tertiary structure of a protein consists of irregular contortions from bonding between the side chains (R groups) of the various amino acids-Determined by hydrogen bonding between R groups of amino acids-Determined by hydrophobic interactions between nonpolar side chains-Determined by disulfide bonds between sulfur atoms ...view middle of the document...

Types of lipids: triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids-Lipids: class of substances that are insoluble in water but are soluble in nonpolar substances-Triglycerides-Consist of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule-Hydrocarbons with a carboxyl group at one end of the chain-Glycerol and fatty acid join by ester linkage-Oils, waxes-Types of triglycerides-Saturated fatty acids-Has a single covalent bond between each pair of carbon atoms-Each carbon has two hydrogens bonded to it-Solid at room temperature, unhealthy-Animal fat-Monounsaturated fatty acids-Has one double covalent bond and each of the two carbons in this bond has only one hydrogen atom bonded to it-Liquid at room temperature, healthy-Vegetable oil-Polyunsaturated fatty acids-Has two or more double covalent bond formed by the removal of hydrogen atoms from the carbon skeleton-Just like a monounsaturated fatty acid-Know the Triglyceride structural formula-Phospholipids-Have two fatty acids, with the third hydroxyl group of glycerol being joined to a phosphate group that's negative in charge-Hydrophilic head-Hydrophobic tail-Major components of cell membranes-Amphipathic molecule-Steroids are lipids characterized by a backbone of four linked carbon rings-Cholesterol is a common component of animal cell membranes-Testosterone, estrogen

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