The Americas Unit 2 Study Guide Lynbrook U.S. History Study Guide

3054 words - 13 pages

Unit 2 Study Guide 
What was Reconstruction and to what extent was it a success and failure (1863-1877)? 
I. Reconstruction 
A. The period during which the United States began to rebuild after the Civil War 
B. Process the federal government used to readmit the Confederate states 
II. Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan 
A. South would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of its voters swore an oath of allegiance to 
the Union 
B. Angered Radical Republicans, wanted majority of voters to swear an oath 
III. Johnson’s Plan 
A. Wished to prevent most high-ranking Confederates and wealthy Southern landowners from 
gaining voting privileges 
B. Failed to address the needs of former slaves 
C. 13th amendment: abolished slavery, only criminals subject to slavery 
IV. Congressional (Radical) Plan (Ulysses S. Grant) 
A. Civil Rights Act of 1866: forbade black codes 
B. 14th amendment: defined citizenship, all entitled to law and protection 
C. 15th amendment: rights of citizens cannot be denied or abridged according to race 
V. Outcomes 
A. Social 
1. Freedmen cautious to test limits of freedom 
2. Whites angered by idea of educated black 
3. Founded their own churches, schools 
4. Searched for family 
B. Economic 
1. Difficult to get property 
2. sharecropping/tenant farming 
C. Political progress 
1. African Americans could vote 
VI. Southern Resistance 
A. Black Codes 
1. Laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866 in the United States after the 
American Civil War with the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' 
freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or 
debt 
B. Grandfather Clause 
1. Allowed potential white voters to evade literacy tests, poll taxes, and other tactics 
designed to disenfranchise southern African Americans 
C. Poll Tax 
1. A tax levied as a prerequisite for voting; many southern states required these to 
prevent African Americans from voting 
D. Literacy Test 
1. A test administered for preventing African Americans from voting 
E. The KKK 
1. A white supremacist group that persecuted and ostracized African Americans 
F. A credit system widely used by cotton farmers in the U.S. in the south between 1860s and 
1930s. Sharecroppers and tenant farmers, who did not own the land they worked, obtained 
supplies and food on credit from local merchants 
VII. Reconstruction Ends 
A. The Election of 1876/Compromise of 1877 
1. Between 1869-75, the Democrats recaptured the state governments of Alabama, 
Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, North Car., Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.  
2. As a result of redemption–as the Democrats called their return to power in the 
South–and the national election of 1876, congressional Reconstruction came to an 
end 

3. After Grant decided NOT to run for a third term; the Republicans chose the governor 
of Ohio, Rutherford B. Hayes, as their candidate. Opposing him on the Democrat 
side, was Samuel J. Tilden of New York. 
4. Tilden won the popular vote as expected,...

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