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The Big Five Essay

1068 words - 5 pages

The Five-Factor Model originated in Allport and Odbert's attempt to compile trait-related terms. Researchers became dissatisfied with the trait like differences in adaptational styles. Investigators focused on situational based approaches that offered greater flexibility in explaining specific person-environment transactions.Webb studied the earlier work of Spearman and his General Factor (g) of intelligence. Webb found a second factor, Will (w). Later Garnett analyzed Webb's correlation and found a third factor, Cleverness (c). By 1919, three broad factors accounted for individual differences, Intellect (g), Conscientiousness (w), and Extraversion (c) to give the Webb-Garnett factors their ...view middle of the document...

Five-factor model- A suggestion of five basic factors to human personality: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.Fundamental lexical hypothesis- The hypothesis that over time the most important individual differences in human interaction have been encoded as single terms into language.OCEAN- The acronym for the five basic traits: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.The Big 5 Factors & Illustrative AdjectivesCharacteristics of High ScorersNature of FactorCharacteristics of Low ScorersNeuroticism (N)worrying, insecure, emotional, nervousProneness to psychological distress, excessive carvings or urges, unrealistic ideascalm, secure, unemotional, relaxedExtraversion (E)talkative, optimistic, sociable, affectionateCapacity for joy, need for stimulationunartistic, conventionalOpenness (O)creative, original, curious, imaginativeToleration for & exploration of the unfamiliarunartistic, conventionalAgreeableness (A)good-natured, trusting, helpfulOne's orientation along a continuum from compassion to antagonism in thoughts, feelings, and actionsrude, uncooperative, irritableConscientiouness (C)organized, reliable, neat, ambitiousIndividual has degree of organization, persistence, and motivation in goal-directed behaviorunreliable, lazy, careless, negligentPsychological TreatmentThe five-factor model may be useful in providing psychological treatment to individuals. The therapist may be able to recognize problems and develop a treatment for individuals better because of an understanding of the individual's personality.Because the model is recent it is uncertain how useful the five factors will be in distinguishing among the different types of personalities that will be successful in most occupations or among the different forms of psychopathology. The model shows more use in explaining psychopathology than explaining disorders (Pervin,1993).Links to Eysenck's TheoryThe descriptive taxonomies associated with the "Big 5", has recently become a source of debate on the number of dimensions useful in the description of individual differences. Descriptive taxonomists suggest that before it is possible to develop causal explanations it is necessary to agree on the fundamental dimensions to be explained. Most experimental and theoretical statements concerning the biological basis of personality are directly or...

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