The Causes And Consequences Of Rain Drain In Third World Countries

1385 words - 6 pages

Causes and Consequences of Brain Drain on Third World CountriesThe movement of intellectuals like University lecturers and researchers from one national setting to another, ranging from permanent relocation to short-term visits or exchange programs, facilitates the dissemination of knowledge and the broadening of cultural horizons. However, when one nation becomes a substantial net exporter of academic talent, a "brain drain" condition is said to occur. The presence of this condition suggests that the provider nation is at risk of depleting its natural supply of intellectual talent.Education seems to play a key role influencing rural-urban migration in the third world countries. Numbers of ...view middle of the document...

These are individuals who may have difficulties because of their ethnic, cultural, religious belongings or being a member of opposition political groupings in their home countries, - Migration taking place in response to wars, and political and social turmoil.3. Many scholars who have been sent abroad for further studies or who are once out in one way or another, remain abroad leaving their family and workplace behind with the hope that a better life can be achieved elsewhere, despite their well being at home. Expectations are usually not met as hoped; thus, obliged to seek asylum which deteriorates their lives and becomes `ashamed` of themselves to return home empty handed - Immigration flow due to lack of information and misguidance.As some statistics indicate concerning the current intellectual migration, it is Africa that suffers most from this 'unfortunate phenomena'. In 1998 an estimated 700 Ghanaian physicians are said to have been practicing in the USA alone, which makes a considerable percentage of the population of doctors in the country. It is estimated that about 20,000 Nigerian academics are now employed in USA alone and more than 300 Ethiopian physicians are working in Chicago, USA alone. Here, one can imagine how much it means in the whole of the United States. According to research reports presented on an international conference concerning the issue of Brain Drain, Africa generally loose over 20,000 intellectuals yearly. This is undoubtfully one of the main constraints of under development in the continent.A report, broadcasted by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) says Africa has lost a third of its skilled professionals in recent decades and it is costing the continent $4 billion dollars a year to replace them with expatriates from the West. Whereas rich countries like the United States of America have saved a total sum of $26 billion dollars which otherwise should have spent to train 130,000 highly qualified physicians.The consequence is especially worse for those countries like Ethiopia. This already poor and 'unfortunate' country has been losing its meager professionals continuously since the previous regimes. Ethiopia has a long history of external provocation and internal conflict that has been driving out its limited medical doctors in particular and other professionals in general. The statistical estimates for Ethiopia indicate that about 50 percent of the Ethiopians who went abroad for training and further education have not returned home for the past two decades after completing their studies in the West. Thousands of them have been trained in home institutions with considerable social cost and debt from the richest nations. Between 1980-90, a total of less than 6000 students have returned from studies abroad out of nearly 23,000 students who left for Europe and the United States in that same period of time. These are either tempted by significantly higher wages and better future prospects or give the blame to...

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