Bio1020 Essay On Cells The Dynamic Cell

922 words - 4 pages

The Dynamic Cell
Eukaryotic cells are more advanced and larger than prokaryotic cells. The eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, rod-shaped chromosomes, and membrane-bound organelles. There are seven organelles that make up the eukaryotic cells. Each organelle plays a very vital role in the life of a cell. Each organelle has its own area in the cell, much like a house has separate rooms. Everything must work together in a smooth manner to keep the cells functioning properly.
The nucleus is what could be considered the brain of the cell. The nucleus is responsible for the cells activity, along with the chromosomes that make up the cell’s DNA. Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus. DNA is stored in the nucleus of the cell. The nucleus has two membranes an inner membrane and an outer membrane. There are special pores that allow transport for molecule, RNA, and ions between the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm.
Mitochondria are the part of the cell that is responsible for turning food into energy. This is also the so-called powerhouse of the cell. The cell's energy comes from molecules called ATP, adenosine triphosphate, this process is carried out by cellular respiration. Aside from the ability to produce energy, the mitochondria are also able to mediate cell growth and death, and also able to generate heat. Mitochondria also have the ability to reproduce using binary vision, this is a form of asexual reproduction, although it is more common in prokaryotic cells, some eukaryotes, such as amoeba can also have this ability.
Golgi apparatus takes proteins and processes and packages them. The Golgi apparatus is made up of cisternae sacs. These sacs have different functions as well as different regions. Each region has a specific enzyme to help with the designated task to carry out associated with that region. The Golgi apparatus transport lipids through the cell along with the ability to create lysosomes.
Lysosomes make a digestive enzyme to assist with breaking food down. Lysosomes are responsible for digesting everything from food particles to individual protein molecules. Foreign matter that manages to find its way into the cell is broken down by lysosomes. Lysosomes can also break down bacteria and worn out cellular components that are engulfed in the cell. Lysosome enzymes are so strong and powerful that there is a potential that it could kill the host of released; this is why they remain within the specialized membrane for lysosomes.
Endoplasmic reticulum also known as ER, this is an organelle that is responsible for transporting items around the cell. There are two parts to the ER, smooth and rough, you can tell the differences by the physical and functionality of the ER. Inside of the ER is flattened sacs inside of the cytoplasm. These sacs serve multiple purposes such as transportation of proteins, synthesis, modification, and folding. The ER makes up a majority of the cell. Breaking down the two types of ER, Rough ER has riboso...


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