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The Effects Of Exercise On The Pulmonary Ventilation Rate

910 words - 4 pages

Respiration is the process that takes place in every living cell to make energy available to the body. Energy is vital for us to carry out many life processes such as movement and so respiration in essential to life. During respiration glucose and oxygen are used in a reaction that produces energy and gives out carbon dioxide and water as waste products. Glucose is obtained by digestion of food and oxygen is taken from the air during a process called breathing or ventilation. Pulmonary Ventilation is the term given to the movement of air in and out of the lungs; the rate of pulmonary ventilation is defined as the tidal volume multiplied by the number of breaths taken per minute. Tidal volume ...view middle of the document...

The movement of the diaphragm and the intercostals muscles are dependant on the stimulus of impulses from the motor nerves delivered from the brain. The part of the brain that controls normal breathing is called the medulla and is situated in the hindbrain. Within the medulla is the medullary respiratory system containing a mass of neurones that can be split up into the inspiratory centre and the expiratory centre. The activities of these centres are controlled by chemoreceptors in the arterial blood and pressure receptors in the lungs. During respiration carbon dioxide levels increase as energy is produced and used up by the body (as it is of no use to the human body it needs to be excreted), as carbon dioxide is an acidic gas this also causes the pH of the blood to decrease. Chemoreceptors detect a change in levels of carbon dioxide, a significant decrease in oxygen and a change in pH.During inspiration an increased level of carbon dioxide and a low pH will stimulate chemoreceptors in the blood, which in turn will stimulate the inspiratory centre. The inspiratory system sends an impulse to the muscles of inspiration - the diaphragm and the external intercostals muscles - and the stimulation of these muscles causes us to breathe in. As the lungs expand due to inspiration this change is detected by pressure receptors of stretch receptors which then stimulate the expiratory centre, which then stimulates the muscles of expiration - the diaphragm and the internal intercostals muscles - and causes us to breathe out.Due to the process of ventilation as explained above, any change in carbon dioxide, pH or a dramatic change in oxygen will...

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