The Effects Of Exercise On The Pulmonary Ventilation Rate

910 words - 4 pages

Respiration is the process that takes place in every living cell to make energy available to the body. Energy is vital for us to carry out many life processes such as movement and so respiration in essential to life. During respiration glucose and oxygen are used in a reaction that produces energy and gives out carbon dioxide and water as waste products. Glucose is obtained by digestion of food and oxygen is taken from the air during a process called breathing or ventilation. Pulmonary Ventilation is the term given to the movement of air in and out of the lungs; the rate of pulmonary ventilation is defined as the tidal volume multiplied by the number of breaths taken per minute. Tidal volume is the volume of air breathed in or out during one cycle of quiet breathing. There are a few different factors that can affect the pulmonary ventilation rate but the most common and often most noticeable variation in pulmonary variation rate occurs during exercise.During normal quiet respiration, the average person breathes 15 times per minute. Breathing is controlled by movements in the thorax brought about by the contracting and relaxing of the diaphragm and the intercostals muscles. Upon inspiration the diaphragm and the external intercostals muscles contract and the internal intercostals muscles relax, moving the ribs upwards and outwards. As the volume of the thorax increases, the elastic tissue of the lungs allows them to expand and air rushes into the lungs due to pressure inside the lungs being less than the atmospheric pressure outside. During expiration the diaphragm and the external intercostals muscles relax and the internal intercostals muscles contract, moving the ribs downwards and inwards. The decrease in volume of the thorax decreases the size of the lungs and air rushes out due to the increased internal pressure.Normal breathing is a reflex action that occurs automatically without the person being consciously aware that it is taking place. The movement of the diaphragm and the intercostals muscles are dependant on the stimulus of impulses from the motor nerves delivered from the brain. The part of the brain that controls normal breathing is called the medulla and is situated in the hindbrain. Within the medulla is the medullary respiratory system containing a mass of neurones that can be split up into the inspiratory centre and the expiratory centre. The activities of these centres are controlled by chemoreceptors in the arterial blood and pressure receptors in the lungs. During respiration carbon dioxide levels increase as energy is produced and used up by the body (as it is of no use to the human body it needs to be excreted), as carbon dioxide is an acidic gas this also causes the pH of the blood to decrease. Chemoreceptors detect a change in levels of carbon dioxide, a significant decrease in oxygen and a change in pH.During inspiration an increased level of carbon dioxide and a low pH will stimulate chemoreceptors in the blood, which in turn will stimulate the inspiratory centre. The inspiratory system sends an impulse to the muscles of inspiration - the diaphragm and the external intercostals muscles - and the stimulation of these muscles causes us to breathe in. As the lungs expand due to inspiration this change is detected by pressure receptors of stretch receptors which then stimulate the expiratory centre, which then stimulates the muscles of expiration - the diaphragm and the internal intercostals muscles - and causes us to breathe out.Due to the process of ventilation as explained above, any change in carbon dioxide, pH or a dramatic change in oxygen will automatically cause inspiration and as soon as inspiration has occurred, stretch receptors will induce expiration. During exercise, the body uses an increased amount of energy due to the requirements of cells that are working harder than they would during normal activity. This means that to produce this energy, respiration is occurring at an increased rate. Therefore oxygen is being used up and carbon dioxide is being produced at a faster rate. During intense exercise lasting long periods of time, the body may become deprived of oxygen as it is being used up faster than it can be delivered to the cells; this may mean that the cells will begin to expire anaerobically. Anaerobic respiration uses only glucose to produce energy with the only waste product being lactic acid. This acid along with the increased levels of carbon dioxide will cause the pH level of the blood to decrease dramatically.When exercise takes place the pulmonary ventilation rate increases significantly. This is due to rapid inspiration caused by the detection of low pH and oxygen levels and increased carbon dioxide levels in the blood which then in turn causes expiration due to the stimulation of the stretch receptors in the lungs. This ventilation process will happen much quicker than normal as more breaths are taken per minute to attempt to restore the constant balance of gases and pH. Tidal volume will also increase during exercise as the inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes are used so that more air and therefore more oxygen can be inspired in one breath and more carbon dioxide can be expired. This overall results in a major increase in pulmonary ventilation rate.


Essay On The Rate Of Photosynthesis

3760 words - 16 pages environmentWater that is absorbed from the soil via the roots for land plants. Aquatic plants from their habitat where they liveThe rate of photosynthesis will depend on all of the above factors. Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction, and enzymes act as catalysts to speed up the reaction. Enzymes work best at an optimum temperature (370C). At low temperatures, the enzymes, become less active and at high temperatures they become denatured. This indicates that

Effects Of Globalization On The Environment

584 words - 3 pages Free Effects of Globalization on the EnvironmentGlobalization has had a huge impact on the world in a number of ways. It has increased the integration of countries' individual economies, the rise in the world trade and multinational companies, and the effect of large amounts of money moving in and out of economies throughout the world. People around the world are more connected to each other than ever before. Information and money flow more quickly

The Effects Of Lead Poison On Children

2547 words - 11 pages Free . Researchers here found the cue chalk could actually be a source of environmental lead(Modica 1996). There are many effects or symptom that lead poison can have on a child if diagnosed at an early age. These injuries our so severe because the body and the brain are not fully developed, which can leave children with subtle but irreversible injuries that does not appear until many years after the exposure of lead(Monheit, 1). In young children, lead

The Effects Of Fairy Tails On Children

1181 words - 5 pages Most of parents read fairy tales to their children and these children enjoy listening fairy tales. However, in fairy tales there are some characters which are taken as a model by children and patterns connecting with some patterns like wedding. In The Green Fairy Book, in 1982, as Lang refering to Lang to emphasises fairy tales to have fun for children but also teach them. Those characters and symbols have active roles on children's behaviour

Effects Of The Industrial Revolution On The Working Class Family

1556 words - 7 pages Sadler Commission on Child Labor (1832), such as that of William Cooper, a young boy working in a flax mill, prove that the children had to begin work very early in the morning at roughly 5 am and ended their days late in the night at 9pm. William's older sister had even longer days where she started at 5am and finished at 11pm. They were given little breaks, one forty-minute break for their lunch in a fifteen-hour day. Sometimes they were even

The Effects Of Cannabis On The Human Reproductive System

1749 words - 7 pages Free marijuana, on both male and female reproductive systems.Marijuana is derived from the plant cannabis sativa and has been grown for over five thousand years. The major source of the psychoactive substance in marijuana is called delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Along with THC, there are over four hundred other chemicals in the plant, all of which have close to no psychoactive effect. The effects of marijuana reported were lethargy, elation, a

The Effects Of Globalisation On The Australian Business Culture

2809 words - 12 pages , and obediently throw themselves to destruction like the soldiers who slow-walked themselves towards the machine guns of the enemy lines on the first day of the Battle of the Somme" (James, 1999). He expands to suggest that the global business culture is greedy, with spending only rarely adequate to meet needs. He is also passionate about the global effects this culture is instilling on education stating, "Business culture sees no reason why

Music Effects On The Mind

1397 words - 6 pages students. Depending on the intelligence of the students, those with mental disabilities can participate in a regular music program. Music can also be a source of comfort and learning for these students. For example, playing an instrument or listening to music will help improve their quality of life and give them the joy of accomplishment. Special needs students with ADD (attention deficit disorder) ADHD (attention deficit hyperactive disorder) and

The Effects of Smoking on Lung Tissue - Biology - Lab Report

2559 words - 11 pages 2 A Comparison of the Effects of Tar Levels in Cigarettes on Ciliary Movement By Exposing Mollusc Gill Cilia to Cigarette Extract and Recording the Beat Frequency D. Perklic B-W03: Delaney Perklic Abstract This study was conducted to observe the effects tar levels in cigarettes on the function of cilia movement. It was hypothesized that the tar levels within a cigarette would have an affect on ciliary action. The study was carried out using a

The Effects of Junk Food on Health - Health - Essay

408 words - 2 pages Junk foods taste good that’s why it is mostly liked by everyone of any age group especially kids and school going children. They generally ask for the junk food daily because they have been trend so by their parents from the childhood. They never have been discussed by their parents about the harmful effects of junk foods over health. According to the research by scientists, it has been found that junk foods have negative effects on the health

Effects of immigration on the US economy - English 1010 - Essay

821 words - 4 pages Huffington post,” How Immigration Benefits Americans And Is Key to US Leadership In The World”. Accessed December 4, 2018. Budget model,” The Effects of Immigration on the United States’ Economy”. Accessed December 4, 2018.

Paper on the causes and effects of a tsunami

2101 words - 9 pages every coastal area. Scientists estimate that almost three-quarters or 80 percent of the world's tsunamis occur in the Pacific Oceans' ring of fire because the pacific rim bordering the ocean has many active submarine earthquake zones. Some places most affected by tsunamis are Alaska, Chile, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Japan. Earthquakes often cause tsunamis; these are the most destructive tsunamis. An earthquake on the ocean floor can result

The Effects Of Color On Personality And Relationships

2237 words - 9 pages the sky from dawn to dusk The world is full of beautiful colors. Colors have subtle effects on our moods everyday. Psychologists have long since theorized that people's preferences for color and color mixes have deep physiological affects on you mood or feeling. In fact, research does suggest that color can affect your being and that your choice of color or combinations of color is significant to your mood. An example of this is that healthy

The effects of technology on relationships - North West University - Assignment

770 words - 4 pages language, compassion is often not felt. It absolutely exists inside the individual who messaged, posted or messaged yet words don't pass it on. Technology can be addictive: Technology has turned into an electronic fixation for a few, removing them from the physical world as they stick to the highlights it offers. Furthermore, in the same way as other addictions, there's an effect on the number and nature of human connections. Discussions through

An Investigation Into How The Concentration Of Substrate Will Affect The Rate Of An Enzyme Controlled Reaction

4049 words - 17 pages yeast solution-The ph of the substrate.Key FactorI am investigating the effect on the speed of the reaction of the concentration of the substrate in this experiment. I will do this by changing the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide, and measuring the different amounts of gas produced after a given length of time.The concentration of the hydrogen peroxide will affect the rate of the reaction. This is because the particles of the hydrogen