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The Meaning Of Training And Development

3965 words - 16 pages

1. IntroductionHuman Resource Management (HRM) is a distinctive approach to manage people. People make a business function efficiently and yet they cause the greatest difficulties. Especially in the new information-based economy, people, not physical assets, are now critical. But people, unlike coalmines and factories, cannot be owned. Organizations therefore must create an environment that makes the best people want to stay.In this regard, Training and Development (T&D) can be the most important HRM function to treat people well and increase the competitive power for the organizations. Training refers to improving competencies needed today or very soon. In comparison, development refers ...view middle of the document...

In terms of some authors (Jackson & Schuler, 2003, p360-392) (Ivancevich & Lee, 2002, p156-184), the HR managers should conduct T&D basically in four steps: needs analysis, designing program, implement the program, and evaluation. In tandem, some experts pointed out some relevant standpoints around the four stages.(1) Needs analysisThe diagnosis of needs is a process of information gathering and analysis, and the many texts advocate a range of investigative techniques, such as organization analysis, operations analysis and staff analysis, for improving its effectiveness (Leat & Lovell, 1997, p143) (CSU material Topic 6). McCole, Morrow, Ponsonby and Kelly(2001, p90) stated that the decision to adopt new technology into existing processes usually could result T&D. Paton (1996, p11) put forward that training and development should be respondence to disaster stressors. Therefore, the need analysis must be conducted by the training department timely (Brinkerhoff & Gill, 1995). However in high effective training, it is carried out by the line managers.(2) Designing and implementing programThe literatures suggested using internal and external trainers, on-the-job training and off-the-job training approaches, good location and instruction in training and development (Jackson & Schuler, 2003, p360-393) (Ivancevich & Lee, 2002, p156-184). However, Berge, deVerneil, Berge, Davis and Smith (2002, p43) recognized that well-designed instruction did not guarantee performance, and most HRD practitioners still spent the bulk of their time in the design and delivery of class-room-based training events. Grugulis (1998, p383) pointed out that the managers also strongly influenced the level of training available to others, since it could be often managers who arrange training for their subordinates. For true technology transfer to occur, "learning by using" (Rosenberg, 1982) has to result in the adaptation and applications practice. Mentorship is considered an important training and development tool in the academic literature (Hunt & Michael, 1983, p475-485), and is present as a formal program in many companies (Burke & McKeen, 1989, p69-76) (Klauss, 1981, p489-496).(3) Evaluating the programThe main evaluation modules consist of product evaluation model, Kirkpatrick's 4 stage model, and Warr, Bird & Rackham's process evaluation model which is recently developed by Trapnell (CSU material Topic 6). Typically, only short-term reactions to training are assessed (Jackson & Schuler, 2003, p393). Traditionally, evaluation is usually conducted after the training. Based on Kirkpatrick (1975), the evaluation should assess reaction, learning, behavior, and result. Recently, the literature advocates putting the evaluation into the whole process (CSU material Topic 6).3. The brief review on TCL3. 1. The background of TCLTCL Corporation is a comprehensive large-scale enterprise, which was established in Shenzhen city of China in...

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