A)George Washington (189-1797) ("Father of His Country")In 1789 George Washington ran against John Adams and John Jay. Washington was part of the Federalist Party. Between 1759 and 1788 Washington was also member to the House of Burgess, the Continental Congress and Chairman of the Constitutional Convention. His Cabinet members were as follows:Secretary of StatesJohn Jay (1789-90), Thomas Jefferson (1790-93), Edmund Randolph (1794-95)Secretary of TreasuryAlexander Hamilton (1789-95), Oliver Wolcott (1795-97)Secretary of WarHenry Knox (1789-94), Timothy Pickering (1795-96), James McHenry (1796-97)Attorney GeneralEdmund Randolph (1790-94), William Bradford (1794-95), Charles Lee (1795-97)During Washington's Presidency there were a lot of notable events that distinguished U.S. History. In 1789 the Judiciary Act specified the number of Federal courts and judges. In 1790 the Supreme Court met for the first time with John Jay as the Chief Justice. In 1791 the Federal capital was established in swamplands on the Potomac. A national banking system was established by the Bank Act. Also in 1791 The Bill of Rights had taken effect. In 1792 Congress established the Post Office as a separate entity. The New York Stock Exchange was organized. Also the government as enacted by the Coinage Act minted coins. In 1793 war broke out between Britain and France. On April 22 of that year the U.S. declared neutrality. In 1794 the Whiskey Rebellion took place because the over excise tax in western Pennsylvania. Federal troops were called to suppress the armed rebellion. In 1795 the Jay Treaty was ratified. British troops were required to withdraw from the U.S. Pinckney's Treaty with Spain opened navigation on Mississippi River. Washington posed for Stuart's portrait, which is now on the one-dollar bill. In 1796 Washington delivered his Farewell Address.For some personal info Washington never had wooden teeth like most people say. His dentures were always made of cow or hippopotamus teeth, sometimes ivory and lead.B)John Adams (1797-1801) ("Atlas of Independence")In 1789 Adams ran for President. Even though he lost, he kept running every term until he got elected in 1796. Adams was part of the Federalist Party. Adams was also a member of the Continental Congress, the Commissioner to France, Minister to the Netherlands, Minister to England and Vice President. After his first term he ran again but failed. During hi presidency his cabinet members were as follows:Secretary of StateTimothy Pickering (1797-1800), John Marshall (1800-01)Secretary of the TreasuryOliver Wolcott (1797-1801), Samuel Dexter (1801)Secretary of WarJames McHenry (1797-1800), Samuel Dexter (1800-01)Attorney GeneralCharles Lee (1797-1801)Secretary of the NavyBenjamin Stoddert (1798-1801)During Adams Presidency there were only a few notable events that played significant roles in history. In 1796 the slogan "E Pluribus Unum"(Out of Many One) was added to American coins. In 1798 Federalists supported the highly unpopular Alien &Sedition Act, which they would later repeal. In 1800 the U.S. capital was relocated to Washington D.C. from Philadelphia. Jefferson defeated Adams in the electoral race. Congress established the Library of Congress.The Adams' were the first residents to live in the White House. Adams was one of three Presidents not to attend the inauguration of his successor. Not only was Adams disappointed in losing to Jefferson he was also grieving the death of his son Charles. Adams was the great-great grandson of John and Priscilla Alden, Pilgrims who landed at Plymouth Rock in 1620. The only Presidents to sign the Declaration of Independence, Adams and Jefferson both died on its 50th anniversary, July 4, 1826. Adams' dying words were "Thomas Jefferson survives". Jefferson however passed on a few hours earlier. Adams lived longer than any other President did at his death. When he died he was 90 years, 247 days old.C)Thomas Jefferson (1801-09) ("Man of the People")In 1792 Jefferson ran for President but lost to Washington. Jefferson lost again to Adams in 1796. In 1800 Jefferson was finally elected President. He ran again the next term and was successful once again.President Jefferson was part of the Democratic- Republican Party. Jefferson was also part of the Virginia House of Burgesses from 1769 to 1774. He was a member of the Continental Congress from 1775 to 1776. He was Governor of Virginia from 1779 to 1781. He was again a member of the Continental Congress from 1783 to 1785. He was Minister of France from 1785 to 1789. He was Secretary of State under Washington from 1790 to 1793. Finally, he was Vice President under Adams from 1797 to 1801.Jefferson's Vice Presidents were Aaron Burr, 1801 to 1805 and George Clinton from 1805 to 1809. His cabinet members were as follows:Secretary of StatesJames Madison (1801-1809)Secretary of TreasurySamuel Dexter (1801), Albert Gallatin (1801-1809)Secretary of WarHenry Dearborn (1801-1809)Attorney GeneralLevy Lincoln (1801-1804), John Breckenridge (1805-1806), Caesar A. Rodney (1807-1809)Secretary of NavyBenjamin Stoddert - 1801; Robert Smith - 1801 to 1809During Jefferson's presidency there were many notable events that distinguished American history. In 1803 the Supreme Court ruled in Marbury v. Madison that any law passed by Congress could be made unconstitutional by the courts. Also that year the Louisiana Territory was purchased from France for $15 million, which consisted of 800 acres of land.In 1804 the 12th Amendment changed Presidential election rules. This meant that Presidents were now chosen by the states instead of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Also in 1804 President Jefferson sent Merriwether Lewis and William Clark to begin an exploration of the Northwest Territories. During their exploration they met a Native American whose name was Sacajwea. On July 11th of that year Vice President Burr killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel.In 1807 Congress outlawed the importation of slaves from Africa and the Embargo Act forbade American ships to leave American waters. In 1808 slave importation was outlawed but yet another quarter million were brought in by the year 1860. In 1809 the Non-Intercourse Act repealed the Embargo Act. It just didn't work.For some points of interest Jefferson was the first President to be inaugurated in Washington D.C. Approximately 6,000 books from Jefferson's private library for $23,950 to help start the Library of Congress. Bears that had been brought back from Lewis and Clark's famous expedition were displayed in the White House lawn. For years the White house was sometimes referred to as "president's bear garden". Jefferson was credited for several inventions, including the swivel chair, a pedometer machine to make fiber from hemp, a letter-copying machine and the lazy susan. Jefferson also wrote his own epitaph without mentioning that he served as a President of the United States.D)James Madison (1809-1817) ("Father of the Constitution)President Madison was elected for two terms, once in 1808 and a second time in 1812. Madison was part of the Democratic- Republican Party. Madison was also a member of the Virginia Constitutional Convention in 1776. He was a member of the Continental Congress from 1780 to 1783. He was a member of the Virginia Legislature from 1784 to 1786. He was a member of the Constitutional Convention in 1787. Madison was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1789 to 1797. Madison was also the Secretary of State under Jefferson from 1801 to 1809.Vice Presidents were George Clinton (1809-1812), Elbridge Gerry (1813-1814). Madison cabinet members were as follows:Secretary of StateRobert Smith (1809-1811), James Monroe (1811-1817)Secretary of TreasuryAlbert Gallatin (1809-1814), George W. Campbell (1814), Alexander J. Dallas (1814-1816), William H. Crawford (1816-1817)Secretary of WarWilliam Eustis (1809-1812), John Armstrong (1813-1814), James Monroe (1814-1815), William H. Crawford (1815-1816)Attorney GeneralCaesar A. Rodney (1809-1811), William Pinkney (1812-1814), Richard Rush (1814-1817)Secretary of the NavyPaul Hamilton (1809-1812), William Jones (1813-1814), Benjamin W. Crowninshield (1815-1817)During Madison's presidency there were many notable events that helped form the United States as it is today. In 1811 Madison allowed a 20-year charter of the Bank of the United States to lapse. Also that year William Henry Harrison fought Native Americans led by Chief Tecumseh at Tippecanoe, near Indianapolis.In 1812 war was declared on England on June 18 after England continued to attack U.S. ships headed to France. Madison was also reelected that year.In 1814 the city of Washington was captured and burned by British on August 24 of that year. That year Francis Scott Key observed the American Flag over Fort McHenry at Baltimore, September 14 inspiring him to write the "Star Spangled Banner". Also that year the Treaty of Ghent ended the war of 1812 on December 24, but fighting still continued. In 1815 Andrew Jackson defeated British in New Orleans on January 8, after the war had ended. In 1816 the Second Bank of the United States was chartered.E)James Monroe (1817-1825) ("The Last Cocked Hat" and Era-of-Good-Feeling President")President Monroe was elected in 1816 he also ran for a second term in 1820. President Monroe was part of the Democratic-Republican Party. President Monroe was also a member of the Continental Congress from1783 to 1786. Monroe was the United States Senator from 1790 to 1794. Monroe was the Minister to France from 1794 to 1796. Monroe was the Governor to Virginia from 1799 to 1802. Monroe was the Minister to France And England from 1803to1807. Monroe was Secretary of State Under Madison from 1811 to 1817. Monroe was Secretary of war under Madison from 1814 to 1815.There were many notable events under Monroe's presidency. On April 4, 1818 Congress fixed a number of stripes on the U.S. flag at 13 to honor the original colonies. During that year the Anglo-American Convention set the 49th parallel as the border with Canada.In 1819 Florida ceded by Spain to the United States on February 2nd. In exchange the U.S. cancelled the $5 million in Spanish debts. In 1820 the Missouri Compromise forbade slavery above 36 degrees 30 minutes latitude. Also in 1820 Monroe was re-elected President. In 1823 on December 2nd, the Monroe Doctrine was delivered to Congress.Some points of interest: Monroe was the first president to ride on a steamboat. He was the first president to have been a U.S. Senator. In the election of 1820 Monroe received early electoral votes, except one. A New Hampshire delegate wanted Washington to be the only president elected unanimously. Monroe's inauguration in 1817 was the first to be held outdoors. The bride in the first White House was Monroe's daughter. The U.S. Marine band played at Monroe's 1821 inauguration and at every inauguration since.F)John Quincy Adams (1825-1829) ("Old Man Eloquent")John Quincy Adams ran for office in 1820 and 1824 and was elected President in 1824. He was a member of the Democratic-Republic Party. He was also the Secretary to the U.S. Ministers of Russia in 1781. He was the Minister to the Netherlands in 1794. He was Minister to Prussia from 1797 to 1801. He was a United States Senator from 1803 to 1808. He was Minister to Russia from 1809 to 1811. He was the Peace Commission at the Treaty of Ghent in 1814. He was Secretary of State under Monroe from 1817 to 1825. He was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1831 to 1848.President Adams' Vice President was John C. Calhoun (1825-1829). His Cabinet members were as follows:Secretary of StateHenry Clay (1825-1829)Secretary of TreasuryRichard Rush (1825-1829)Secretary of WarJames Barbour (1825-1828), Peter B. Porter (1828)Attorney GeneralWilliam Wirt (1825-1829)Secretary of the NavySamuel L. Southard (1825-1829).Notable events during his presidency included in 1825 the appointment of Henry Clay as Secretary of State which led to charges that Clay and Adams made a bargain in the election of 1824. Also in 1825 the Erie Canal was opened to merchants. In 1828 Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was the first designed for passengers and freight. Also that year Andrew Jackson defeated Adams for the presidency.One point of interest includes Adams' being the first elected president without receiving either the most popular votes or the most votes of the electoral college.G)Andrew Jackson (1829-1837) ("Old Hickory")Andrew Jackson ran for the presidency in 1824 and 1832. He was re-elected in 1832. Jackson was part of the Democratic Party. He was also a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1796 to 1797. He was United States Senator from 1797 to 1798. He was Justice on Tennessee's Supreme Court from 1798 to 1804. He was Governor of the Florida Territory in 1809. He was again United States Senator from 1823 to 1825.Jackson's Vice Presidents were John C. Calhoun (1829-1832) and Martin Van Buren (1832-1837). His cabinet members were as follow:Secretary of StateMartin Van Buren (1829-1831), Edward Livingston (1831-1833), Louis McLane (1833-1834), and John Forsyth (1834-1837)Secretary of TreasurySamuel D. Ingham (1829-1831), Louis McLane (1831-1833), William J. Duane (1833), Roger B. Taney (1833-1834), Levi Woodbury (1834-1837)Secretary of WarJohn H. Eaton (1829-1831), Lewis Cass (1831-1836)Attorney GeneralJohn M. Berrien (1829-1831), Roger B. Taney (1831-1833), Benjamin F. Butler (1833-1837)Postmaster GeneralWilliam T. Barry (1829-1835) and Amos Kendall (1835-1837)Secretary of the NavyJohn Branch (1829-1831), Levi Woodbury (1831-1834), and Mahlon Dickerson (1834-1837)Notable events during Jackson's presidency are in 1829 the Estate of James Smithson funded the establishment of the Smithsonian. Also in that year about 2,000 of Jackson's supporters were given government jobs. Jackson also set up a "kitchen cabinet" of informal advisers. In 1831 Samuel F. Smith wrote My Country Tis of Thee.In 1832 Jackson vetoed the rechartering of the Second Bank leading to the creation of the Whig Party. Also that year South Carolina attempted to nullify federal tariff laws. Federal troops were sent to South Carolina to uphold peace. In 1835 the U.S. became debt free (briefly) for the only time in history. In 1836 6,000 Mexicans defeated 190 Americans in 12 days at the Alamo on March 6th. Also that year the Species Circular ordered that gold and silver were the only currency acceptable for the purchase of federal lands. This was issued on July 11th.Some points of interest during Jackson's time are: he was the only president who served in both the Revolutionary War and The War of 1812. Jackson was the first president to ride on a railroad train.H)Martin Van Buren (1837-1841) ("The Little Magician" and "The Red Fox of Kinderhook")Van Buren was elected President in 1836 and ran for office again in 1840 but was unsuccessful in his second attempt. Van Buren was affiliated with the Democratic Party. He was also New York State Senator from 1813 to 1815. He was New York Attorney General from 1815 to 1819. He was United States Senator from 1821 to 1829. He was Governor of New York in 1829. He was Secretary of State under Jackson from 1829 to 1831. He was Minister of England in 1831. He was Vice President under Jackson from 1832 to 1837.His Vice President was Richard M. Johnson (1837-1841). His Cabinet members were as follows:Secretary of StateJohn Forsyth (1837-1841)Secretary of TreasuryLevi Woodbury (1837-1841)Secretary of WarJoel R. Poinsett (1837-1841)Attorney GeneralBenjamin F. Butler (1837-1838), Felix Grundy (1838-1839), Henry D. Gilpin (1840-1841)Postmaster GeneralAmos Kendall (1837-1840), John M. Niles (1840-1841)Secretary of the NavyMahlon Dickerson (1837-1838), and James K. Paulding (1838-1841)A few notable events: in 1837 banks in Philadelphia and New York City were closed on May 10th. This was the beginning of the Panic of 1837. Depression that followed would last throughout Van Buren's term. In 1838 the Trail of Tears was enacted by Native Americans. Thousands of Native Americans were forced from their homes to die. In 1840 William Henry Harrison defeated Van Buren for the presidency.Some points of interest are: Van Buren was the first president born in the United States. The term "o.k." was popularized because of Van Buren. Van Buren was from Kinderhook, New York, sometimes referred to as Old Kinderhook in speeches and print. "OK Clubs" soon formed to support Van Buren's campaign. "OK" later came to mean all right.I)William Henry Harrison (1841) ("Old Tippecanoe" and "Old Tip")William H. Harrison was elected to office in 1841. Harrison died his first month in office. Harrison was affiliated with the Whig Party. Harrison was also Secretary of the Northwest Territory in 1798. Harrison was also Territorial delegate to Congress from 1799 to 1801. Harrison was Territorial Governor of Indiana from 1801 to 1813. Harrison was U.S. Congressman from Ohio from 1816 to 1819. Harrison was United States Senator from 1825 to 1828. Harrison was also Minister to Columbia from 1828 to 1829.Harrison's Vice President was John Tyler(1841). His cabinet members were as follows:Secretary of StateDaniel Webster(1841)Secretary of TreasuryThomas Ewing(1841)Secretary of WarJohn Bell(1841)Attorney GeneralJohn J. Crittenden(1841)Postmaster GeneralFrancis Granger(1841)Secretary of the NavyGeorge E. Badger(1841)The only notable event during Harrison's presidency was he delivered the longest inaugural address. It was an extremely cold day and President Harrison did not wear a hat. While delivering his 105 minute speech, he contracted pneumonia and died in the White House one month later.Points of interest: Harrison was the only president who studied to become a doctor. His father was one of the signers of The Declaration of Independence. Harrison and his vice president, Tyler, are the only President and Vice President born in the same county. Harrison was clerk of Hamilton County (Ohio) Court immediately before becoming President. His widow received a $25,000 pension after her husband's death.J)John Tyler (1841-1845) ("Accidental President" and "His Accidency")John Tyler was not elected President. He succeeded President Harrison upon his untimely death from pneumonia after serving in office for only one month. Tyler was affiliated with the Whig Party. He was also a member of Virginia House of Delegates from 1811 to 1816. He was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1816 to 1821. He was Virginia State Legislator from 1823 to 1825. He was United States Senator from 1827 to 1836. He was Vice President under W. H. Harrison in 1841. He was a member of the Confederate States Congress from 1861 to 1862.Notable events: In 1841 Tyler's Cabinet resigned after he vetoed banking bills supported by the Whigs. In 1844 the Far East was open to U.S. traders after a treaty with China was signed. In 1845 Texas was annexed which was followed by the War of Mexico.Points of interest: Tyler was the first president whose wife died while he was in office. He was the only president to hold office while a member of the Confederacy. Five years after leaving office, Tyler was so poor he was unable to pay a bill for $1.25 until he sold his corn crop. The playing of "Hail to the Chief" whenever a president appeared at state functions was started by Tyler's second wife.K)James Knox Polk (1845-1849) ("Young Hickory")Polk was elected in 1844 and held office for one term. He was affiliated with the Democratic Party. He was also a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1825 to 1839. He was Speaker of the House from 1835 to 1839. He was Governor of Tennessee from 1839 to 1841.His Vice President was George M. Dallas (1845-1849). His Cabinet members were as follows:Secretary of StateJames Buchanan (1845-1849)Secretary of TreasuryRobert J. Walker (1845-1849)Secretary of WarWilliam L. Marcy (1845-1849)Attorney GeneralJohn Y. Mason (1845-1846), Nathan Clifford (1846-1848), Isaac Toucey (1848-1849)Postmaster GeneralCave Johnson (1845-1849)Secretary of the NavyGeorge Bancroft (1845-1846), John Y. Mason (1846-1849)Notable events: In 1846 a large crack in the Liberty Bell was too large to permit the Bell to be wrung any more. A dispute with Britain over the Oregon Territory was settled. Both nations got part of the territory. In 1848 the Treaty of 1848 with Mexico gave the U.S. control over California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Gold was discovered in California in December of that year.Points of interest: A week before he died, Polk was baptized a Methodist. Polk survived a gallstone operation at the age of 17 without the use of anesthesia or antiseptics. Those medical practices were not used at the time. The first annual White House Thanksgiving was hosted by Sarah Polk. Sarah Polk was a devout Presbyterian. She banned dancing, card playing and alcoholic beverages in the White House. News of Polk's nomination was widely disseminated using the telegraph; the first time this had been done.