Thingamabob That I Really Dont Want To Do Right Now But I Have To N Ahhh Vocab

899 words - 4 pages

SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1 Islamic Civilization
Umayyad
Abbasid
Time Period
661-750 A.D.
750-1258
Geographic Description
-began in Arabia, moved out of peninsula both west -Egypt, across North Africa as far as Spain (Moors), east to Persia and Northern India (Indus); northern boundary was the Byzantine Empire
-Religion spread Africa, Asia, Southern Europe via trade and conquest
-by 700, conquered Spain (west)Central Asia (east)
-Holy city = Mecca (hajj) and also Medina (hijra)
· smaller geographically than Umayyad, centered in Middle East
· more extensive trade not only overland but overseas but dominated the Indian Ocean Trade Network
Political
-1st Caliphate
-influenced by Byzantine and Persian traditions
-capital = Damascus (more central than Mecca)
-4 caliphs 632- 660 prior to start of Dynasty; Umayyad clan claim caliphate and begins Shiite (Shia) –Sunni split that continues to today; Sunni dominated!
- jihad = holy war in defense of faith; large reason why empire spread
2nd Caliphate
capital = Baghdad
- centralized absolutist imperial order formed
- bureaucratization = reflected growing power of caliph
-1055 Caliph will be a puppet of the Seljuk Turks (nomads from Central Asia) will remain that way until collapse
Economic
-key link to trade
- tax on non-believers
-agrarian based used Qanat system (water storage system of Perisa)
- large trading network (over land and overseas)…Indian Ocean trading network from east African city –states of Sofala, Mogadishu, Kilwa to Spice islands in modern day Indonesia – port of Malacca
- credit, banks
-use of spreading beliefs and culture
-agriculture
- converts exempt to pay head tax
- revival of Afro-Eurasian trade that subsided after collapse of Rome and Han
- new commercial enterprises
- purchase of land
Religion
-Islam
-spread by merchants, mystics, and warriors
-rival = Christendom
-began in Arabian peninsula
-Qur’an = holy book
-Sunni’s for Umayyad
-tolerant
· more converts
· Sunni dominated
· Tolerant
· Trade spread Islam into Afghanistan, Pakistan and Western China because of Silk road and East, West Africa, as well as Spice Islands
· 1095 – Seljuk Turks invade Palestine and initiate the Crusades last until 1291 (even after empire collapses)
Social
- Bedouin = pastoral nomads, kin-related clans instrumental in spreading Islam
-Non-Arab Muslims had fewer rights than Arab Muslims
-Muslim Arabs were first class, in the military, and shared the conquest booty
-Mawali = Muslim Converts
-greater portion of the population = dhimmis (People of the Book  Christians, Jews)
-The emergence of Islam preached equality  women status raised
-allowed 4 wives maximum
-women not allowed to lead prayers
-women could study scholarship law, and commerce
- rejected old allies
- bureaucrats, servants, slaves worked within Baghdad
- Caliph = religious/political leader
- merchants became rich; trade...

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