899 words - 4 pages

SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1 Islamic Civilization
Time Period
661-750 A.D.
Geographic Description
-began in Arabia, moved out of peninsula both west -Egypt, across North Africa as far as Spain (Moors), east to Persia and Northern India (Indus); northern boundary was the Byzantine Empire
-Religion spread Africa, Asia, Southern Europe via trade and conquest
-by 700, conquered Spain (west)Central Asia (east)
-Holy city = Mecca (hajj) and also Medina (hijra)
· smaller geographically than Umayyad, centered in Middle East
· more extensive trade not only overland but overseas but dominated the Indian Ocean Trade Network
-1st Caliphate
-influenced by Byzantine and Persian traditions
-capital = Damascus (more central than Mecca)
-4 caliphs 632- 660 prior to start of Dynasty; Umayyad clan claim caliphate and begins Shiite (Shia) –Sunni split that continues to today; Sunni dominated!
- jihad = holy war in defense of faith; large reason why empire spread
2nd Caliphate
capital = Baghdad
- centralized absolutist imperial order formed
- bureaucratization = reflected growing power of caliph
-1055 Caliph will be a puppet of the Seljuk Turks (nomads from Central Asia) will remain that way until collapse
-key link to trade
- tax on non-believers
-agrarian based used Qanat system (water storage system of Perisa)
- large trading network (over land and overseas)…Indian Ocean trading network from east African city –states of Sofala, Mogadishu, Kilwa to Spice islands in modern day Indonesia – port of Malacca
- credit, banks
-use of spreading beliefs and culture
- converts exempt to pay head tax
- revival of Afro-Eurasian trade that subsided after collapse of Rome and Han
- new commercial enterprises
- purchase of land
-spread by merchants, mystics, and warriors
-rival = Christendom
-began in Arabian peninsula
-Qur’an = holy book
-Sunni’s for Umayyad
· more converts
· Sunni dominated
· Tolerant
· Trade spread Islam into Afghanistan, Pakistan and Western China because of Silk road and East, West Africa, as well as Spice Islands
· 1095 – Seljuk Turks invade Palestine and initiate the Crusades last until 1291 (even after empire collapses)
- Bedouin = pastoral nomads, kin-related clans instrumental in spreading Islam
-Non-Arab Muslims had fewer rights than Arab Muslims
-Muslim Arabs were first class, in the military, and shared the conquest booty
-Mawali = Muslim Converts
-greater portion of the population = dhimmis (People of the Book  Christians, Jews)
-The emergence of Islam preached equality  women status raised
-allowed 4 wives maximum
-women not allowed to lead prayers
-women could study scholarship law, and commerce
- rejected old allies
- bureaucrats, servants, slaves worked within Baghdad
- Caliph = religious/political leader
- merchants became rich; trade very respected
- artisans = developed guilds, worked in workshops but produced fine textiles, carpets, and glassware
- unskilled labor left to slaves (most slaves came from Africa and used as domestics
- zanj slaves = captured Africans
-increased seclusion of upper class women in harem and veiling
-development of war tactics and weaponry
-building of Mosques in conquested areas
- mathematics  algebra, geometry
- science  astronomy, medicine, anatomy
-study of Greek, Greco-roman culture
-study of Indian knowledge –spread number system; becomes know as Hindi-Arabic system as a result
-learning = importance
-oral poetry, books  A Thousand and One Nights
-Qur’an = most important book
-libraries, universities
- converts  advanced schooling and career  administrators, judges, traders
- Persian, Hellenistic, Indian, Egyptian, Mesopotamian centers (domains)
- Christian and Jewish learning
- Indian system of numbers (Arabic numbers) was spread through trade
-Medicine (hospitals, ER’s, surgeries, Cannon of Medicine
-gardens, marble palaces, mosques (geometrical designs)
- Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European mixture
- Byzantine (Greco-Roman )domes and arches
-nonreligious art could portray humans
-geometric patterns shown in religious art; forbids graven images
- dhows = ships that carried goods; lateen sails; navigational equip
- religious schools, baths, rest houses
- luxury items = glassware, jewelry, tapestries
- elite became corrupt; indulged in Harem
-Battle of Tours in 732 was a Muslim defeat
-Abbasid family challenged armies in 747
- most of the revolters were Shiite
- -Abu al-Abbas (prophet’s uncles’ great-grandson) ordered all family to be slain at great feast
-survivor was one grandson of former caliph who fled to Spain…Cordova
-began to decline in mid 10th century
- extensive land; rebellions occurred
- slave revolts, peasant uprisings
- sharp decrease in resources
- Mongol invasions ended caliphate in 1258 with taking of Bagdhad
Global Connections/Interactions
- largest empire at the time in history and prior
-faith spread mostly through conquest
- Seljuk Turks (nomads from central Asia) moved into empire in late 1000s and control caliphate but keep caliph as puppet ruler
-Seljuk’s go on to take Palestine which was controlled by Byzantine Empire
- Crusades start 1095-1291
-Christians failed to permanently recapture Holy Land with the major reason being Saladin (great Islamic warrior)
- Western Europe would “awaken” from “Dark Ages” because of contact with Islamic world – Crusades were Europe’s most successful failure
-The intellectual capabilities were truly impressive and at the Abbasid height… comparable to Tang –Song China
-dominated Indian Ocean/Asian Sea trade network
-when Mongols collapsed Baghdad, kept going where they were defeated by Egyptian slave soldiers (Mamaluks) ; Mongols then retreated cause a powervoid to be filled by Ottoman Turks under Osman (forged 1st gunpowder empire)


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